Indian contribution to English literature


of the stories are satirical commentaries on astrology, sooth-
saying, hypnotism and auto-suggestion’ ; some others have a
touch and are very enjoyable indeed.

Mrs. Ramabai Trikannad’s Victory of Faith and Other
Sftw^riTVc^ecHorf of eight very promising and creditable
pieces. One of the stories, Ratna, is nearly as long as the other
seven put together ; it is a simple tale of romance and idealism
and service to the poor* The title-story is meant to illustrate
the truth that Faith can lift mountains. Ramabai’s technique
is naiye^ and her language is simple and effective : and her
stories are ” fresh, chaste and healthy “.

J^.J\^ieri_Is^aran > s.Ar^d Shingles is a collection of
ten short stories ; he tells his stories with a ^trembling sensibility
that leaves an indelible impress on the reader’s mind. Naked
Shingles and The War Memorial are pure gold ; Jowramma is
a delicate character-study ; and all the other stories are the
serious attempts of a true artist to convey his impressions 01
to communicate his intuitions.

While many good I ndo- Anglian novels and many more
short stories have already demonstrated the feasibility of
Indians writing English fiction, it is nevertheless true that the
unique Jntricacies of social life and the untranslatable nuances
of conversational speech are better rendered through the medi-
um of one’s own mother-tongue. It is therefore certain that much
of the creative work in fiction in the India of the future will
be only done in the vernacujare ; but good pnglish novels and
short stories too will continue to appear, either as translations
or as original works.




Since the time of Raja Rammohan Roy, the Indo-Anglians
have been essayists of a sort ; at any rate, many of them have
been compelled to wiekfthe instrument ~5f English prose as
a vehicle for the communication of ideas or for purposes of

But the lighter, more or less personal type of essay, a
rarity anywhere, has but occasionally been attempted by the
Indo-Anglians ; and the successes in this genre have been few
and far between. There was anJjjS^ Bose who published a
volume entitled Humorous Sketches in Allahabad nearly forty
years ago ; Ra^nakrishnaJ^Jlai’s Life in an Indian Village had
appeared even earlier ; but their style is laboured and their
humour thin.

We have mentioned already ^gesh Wishwanath Pai’s
beautifully written Stray Sketches in Chakmakpore. The
“sketches ” are seemingly abstracted from ” the Note-Book of
of an Idle Citizen” and (to quote from the Preface) “are
chiefly intended to amuse ….. The main idea has been to
give pictures of Indian life, pure and simple”.

Pai is a facile “writer ; his humour is gentle, often un-
obtrusive, and insinuates its fun into the reader’s heart. Some-
times humour makes a not incongruous alliance with wit and
satire and there emerges as a result credible and enjoyable
portraits like those of the zealous social reformer, the mother-
in-law, the irritable sahib, the smart student and the street-
hawker. Pai’s pictures of the bullock, the crow, the cat, the
Pariah dog, and his sympathetic portraits of the Hindu lady
of the old school and of the fisher-folk, all are drenched in a


sheer generosity of understanding that makes these essays ex-
quisite slices of life.

Like Pai, other Indo-Anglians also aJBehramji Malabari,
a Venkataramani, have published sketches of inveterate
humanity” la “the columns of faded old newspapers may be
found innumerable attempts at the light essay, some good,
a few very good ; but most of them really deserve thejoblivion
that now comfortably covers them all.


One of the best present-day practitioners of the art and
easily the most successful of them all is S. V. V. aliasTor
IS. V. yijiaraghayachari who has published a number of
perennially delightful books, viz. Soap Bubbles, More Soap
Babbles, The Holiday Trip, ‘Much Daughtered, and Chaff and
Grain. Of him Mr. Hilton Brown remarked in the course of
an address before the East India Association : ” There is a
man in Madras called S. V. Vijiaraghavachari who is writ-
ing the most delicious stuff light as a feather, satirically humor-
ous, not untender, most intimately revealing of Hindu life ;
splendid spiteful stuff which can bear direct comparison
muMis mutandis, with the work of our own E. M. Delafield “.

There .was a time when S. V. V. used to make his weekly
bow to the readers of The Hindu with the unfaltering regularity
and the unfailing fascination of ” Y. Y.” of The New Statesman
and Nation. As a matter of convenience, we might suppose that
S. V. V. has lived (so to put it) three distinct literary lives
as an Indo-Anglian. In the first, he regularly contributed to
the pages of the now defunct Everyman’s, Review. ” An
Elephant’s Creed lin Court”, inl which S. V. V. gave an amus-
ingly satirical account of the interminable disputes between the
tengalais and vadagdcAs of South India, appeared over twenty
years ago and perhaps S. V. V.’ never did anything better !


Presently, sketches and skits, usually one column in length,
began to appear in the Saturday Hindu. ” Don’t Meddle with
Coffee”, “Worry over Slippers”, “In Search of a Son-in-
law “, these were some of the skits published during this period.
Light as the wind, uproariously gay, quotable, memorable, the
” S. V. V.” weekly dose of irresponsible wisdom, in which the
experience of thousands of South Indians was held in animated
suspension, became the most delectable of week-end dainties.
Easy, charming, indulgent, generous ; now and then, a carica-
turist’s stroke ; and now and again, care-free bursts of good
humour ; and never vulgar, never fantastic, never dull. This
was the S. V. V. that became an institution in South India a
very difficult job, since every Madrasee would fain think that
he alone is the one institution worth preserving !

Years passed ; the Hindu Illustrated Weekly was ” mudd-
ling through ” till at last it became, after diverting vicissitudes,
the Sunday Illustrated Edition. During these years S. V. V.’s
art deteriorated ; serials like The Holiday Trip were inflated
trifles that “made one laugh, but also made one sigh that the
buoyant charm of the earlier essays had somehow faded away.
Even so, “The Geography of Madras” was good ; “Buttons”
was very good ; “Dreams” was tremendous fun ; and “3sh.
6d.” was a riot of laughter. And yet one wished one was vouch-
safed that earlier strain, the inimitable strains of “Don’t
Meddle with Coffee”.

S. V. V. writes in English no more ; but he now wields the
Tamil language with a facility that he never commanded in
English, and hence Tamil hearts are full of gratitude to him.
It was, therefore, in the fitness of things that his admirers pre-
sented him, three or four years ago, on the occasion of his
sixty-first birthday, a public address under the presidency of
the Rt. Hon. V. S. Srinivasa Sastri.



Another essayist, almost as contagiously delightful as S.
V. V., is MnRBa^aruswami^ Associate Editor of the My
Magazine ‘ofTndta. OaTS. V. V., Bangaruswami too started
life as a mofussil lawyer ; and they both find inl the seeming
inessentials of life a whole fund of meaning and humour.

Scores of Bangaruswami’s skits and essays have appeared
in the columns of My Magazine, Merry Magazine, The Scholar,
and other periodicals. Not only is Bangaruswami’s control over
the resources of the English language singularly competent, but
his range as a humorist is exceptionally wide and he ever
writes only to amuse and never to wound. Even as a social sati-
rist, Bangaruswami’s touch is very light and leaves no rancour
behind ; humanity and a wide-awake sympathy are thus the
sustaining key notes of his essays. Individual skits like ” In
Defence of Nonsense”, “Touts”, “Forensic Theatricalisin”,
” Bugs “, and ” Pseudo-Philosophy ” are all at once profound-
ly wise and soaked in healthy gaiety.

Bangaruswami’s essays are in divers styles ; they are now
gently and disarmingly humoroug like Robert Lynd’s, now
tantalizingly provoking like Stephen Leaoock’s, now irresistibly
and uproariously gay like P. G. Wodehouse’s stories. He
talks on and on, giving one no respite but overwhelming one
in a cascade of laughter :

” If I were a dictator f Surely I would prescribe

crushing punishments for those who use harmoniums and
gramophones and thereby corrupt the public taste ; for those
hotel-keepers who invent fantastic names for familiar dishes ;
for street-vendors and street-singers who pervert language
and split words and mutilate them; for research workers
who want twenty volumes to prove that man has generally
two legs, that sugar can be said to taste sweet from the


available evidence, that the Raman Effect in butter-milk is
rather funny ; for those public bodies who read more than
one address in every twenty years ; for those who mix more
than three languages in the course of a single sentence . . .
There would be a total reform in penal administration. All
imprisonment in jails will go, root and branch. But they
will be succeeded by severer punishments : being asked to
support more than one family . . . being asked to repeat
poetiy backwards ; being asked to sing the Pythagoras Theo-
rem, proof, Q.E.D., and all

Bangaruswami has also published many series of skits,
Misleading Cases, The Law of the Jmgle, Unreported Confe-
rences, Dummfs Fortnightly Diary, Balu and His Friends,
Law and Life and My Domestics, In Misleading Cases
Bangaruswami has tried with success to mirror albeit only
with the use of a concave or convex mirror court life in the
mofussil courts just as Mr. A. P. Herbert has done with asto-
nishing ease with reference to English Common Law. The
Law of the Jungle takes us to the jungle and its litigants,
lawyers and judges ; here too the court proceedings are most
lively and we realize presently that Bangaruswami is all the
time laughing, not at the lions and foxes and bears and ele-
phants, but actually at ourselves ! Many of these legal traves-
ties have been put together and published with the title My
Lord/Kukudoon Koon.

( Unreported Conferences is a book of fantastic speeches
and even 1 more fantastic resolutions; for all its hilarious exu-
berance, the book is a pointed satire on the many meaningless
and soulless conferences that it has now become a mania to
hold in all sorts of places with all sorts of objectives. )Dumm?s
Fortnightly Diary is as vivacious, as interesting, as full of
wisdom and social criticism as is Delafield’s Diary of a Provin-


cial Lady. Balu, on the other hand, is a recognizable cousin
of * William ‘, the popular creation of Miss Richmal Crompton’s.
Occasionally, one feels that Bangaruswami’s humour is
a little too broad or too loud ; but the general tone is ever one
of unoffending urbanity and charm.


Mr. K. Iswara Dutt, formerly of the Leader of Allahabad
and now editor of the Twentieth Century, gave over ten years
ago a small delightful packet of essays entitled, And All That.
It contains ten very readable essays on subjects as various as
” On a Razor “, ” On the Pleasures of Unemployment “, ” On
the Parental Problem”, “On a Tuft of Hair”, “On Matri-
monial Prescriptions”, “In Praise of Lady Nicotine”, “On
Congress Paradoxes”, and “On the Hobbies of Celebrities”.

An accomplished journalist, a ” taster ” of life who has
rolled about the busy world a good deal, Iswara Dutt writes
with confidence and ease. As Professor Radhakrishnan points
out in his brief Foreword to the book, “These * skits’ are
written with a literary taste and lightness of touch that remind
me of the essays of Robert Lynd”. The essays are all com-
mendably brief and are all full of worldly wisdom and wit
and they uncannily spot out the ludicrous in men and affairs.
Moreover, many of the essays are judiciously spiced with appro-
priate quotations in prose and verse. Iswara Dutt is indeed
a most agreeable companion to spend an hour with !

Rarely does Iswara Dutt falter at the exordium. Here is
the beginning of the essay, ” On a Razor ” :

” Time was when the razor was the barber’s pride and

monopoly but alas ! the times are out of joint for him. Now

it is here, there and everywhere. Particularly the table of

a modem gentleman is incomplete without a razor. It is

as indislpensable to him as a walking stick, the obvious diffe-


Afonso. An important figure in the Indian Catholic world,
Prof. Correia-Afonso is a close student of English, Latin and
Portuguese, and is an exceptionally effective platform speaker.
Platform speaking is with him an art and there can be few
pleasures more exhilarating than hearing him at his best. In
recent years, he has been exhorting his fellow-Catholics to
" Indianize " themselves. Indian Catholics can be true Catho-
lics and true Indians at the same time : this is the burden
of Prof. Correia-Afonso's collection of luminous little essays
suggestively entitled, Plain Living and Plain Thinking.

The eleven essays included in the book range from " Gone
West " and " Education in Simplicity " to " A Philosophy of
Clothes " and " The condition of the Working Class ". Educa-


tion, food and clothes, amusements, religion, the press, all
are " embraced " as it were ; and Prof. Correia-Afonso's
remarks, though primarily addressed to his Catholic country-
men, are mutatis mutandis applicable no less to the Hindus
and the Muslims and the Parsis and the rest. The impact
of the West and the ready acceptance of Western civilization
have reduced many an educated Indian into a pathetic misfit
in his own country. These misguided Westernized men and
women should retrace their steps else we perish !

Prof, Correia-Afonso's argument is thus an urgent one ;
but he develops it with ease, with conviction, with omnipresent
humour. It is a sermon still, but it is a sermon that sings itself
into our ears and glides irresistibly into our hearts. We should
be "national and rational"; "we must be Indian; but not
all that is Indian is commendable "! As for dress reform, here
too we should be " national and rational " :

4ince English can claim,
to be the language familiar to the intelligentsia all over India,
it is and has been for the past five or six decades the obvious
medium for the expression of literary criticism relating to
Sanskrit literature. Even writers who wish to assess the contri-
butions of a vernacular literature have sometimes preferred to
write in English in view of its all-India appeal.

It was thus that the late Romesh Chunder Dutt was inspir-
ed to write in English his Literature of Bengal (1877) . More
recently, JProf^Bbate has done his Modern Marathi Literature
in English ; so have K. M. Munshi, Birinchi Kumar Barua and
Annad^Shaakar Ray with reference to Gujarati, Assamese and
Bengali literatures respectively. Similarly, Masti^ Venkatesa
lyenger has given us an ^illuminating study of Valmiki’s poetry ;
Aurobindo’s studies of Bankim Chandra and Kalidasa are also
in English ; and AjL JP L Ayyaj^ Bhasa is written somewhat
on the lines of the English Men of Letters Series.

More frequently, critical studies on Sanskrit and vernacul-
ar literatures, both ancient and modem, are appearing in
popular English journals like The Modern Review, The Hin-
dustan Review, Prabuddha Bharata f Triveni, The Aryan Path,
The Indian P. E. N., and The Indian Review. Mr. _ Chalapa-


‘ Subba Rau’s Yenki Songs”, Professor
“Mr. Bendr^s poetry” and “The Vision of the Kannada Dra-
matist’Cthe late D^M. T. Patwardhar^s “Modern Marathi
Literature” and the late Ramananda Chatter jee’s varied
contributions to The Modern Review on Bengali literature come
immediately to the present writer’s mind ; of course, many more
equally valuable articles may be discovered in the old files of
the journals catalogued above.


Another important branch of criticism also may be referred
to in passing. Several Indo-Anglians have published meritori-
ous studies of Art in general or of Indian Art, Indian Archi-
tecture, Indian Music, etc. PrincipalJKyJM Khadyejs Bene-
detto Crpce’s Aesthetic Applied to Literary Criticism is a
conscientious and illuminating essay that assesses Croce’s work
as a critic with convincing finality. While Croce is inspiring
as a practical critic, he is of little help ” as a formulator of
an adequate theory of art which can be usefully applied to
literature”. J^r^ipal_KhadyeisL.very widely, read m literature,, (
his powers of_critical analysis are worthy of admiration, and
he wields a clear, dry and an uncompromisingly outspoken and
Affective prose style.

Mr. Shahid Suhrawardy’s Prefaces : Lectures on Art
Subjects has ‘alreaay ‘been mentioned in an earlier chapter.
Suhrawardy’s subjects range from “On the Study of Indian
Art “, ” Art and Education “, and ” A Nation’s Art ” to ” The
Modem European Stage” and “Some Continental Writers”.
Suhrawardy complains that the average modern Indian has
no eye for Art :

” The sources of Indian ait have completely dried. The
grand tradition of our mediaeval sculpture, which knew how
to inform stone with miraculous movements in order to por-


tray the lives of gods involved in human relations, that
splendid realization of the Indian ideal of god-man, unparal-
leled in the world’s art for plasticity and dramatism, has
.been allowed to lapse into oblivion . . . Art study and art
appreciation is banished from our lives”.
Suhrawardy would have present day India shed its insularity,
because he firmly and rightly believes that a nation’s art ” can
be vigorous and effective only when it has the courage to accept
freely adaptable foreign influences, and is vital enough to assi-
milate them to its own artistic needs “.

Mr^B&i S. Mardhekar’s Arts and Man, a brilliant, if not
altogether convincing piece of criticism, outlines a new aesthe-
tic, attempts ” a new and a more scientific ascending and des-
cending order of fine arts, at the top of which will be music
and at the bottom, podry “. The ” mighty ” poets, who have
all along ” arrogated to themselves a prerogative, premier
position on the Mount of Paranassus “, will have now to vacate
their high seats, giving place to the supreme musician*. The
poets ” have been, directly or indirectly, responsible for so much
of what has jritjated art appreciation and aesthetics and they
can hardly complain if J^emesis overtakes them “. Mardhekar’s
more recent work, Two Lectures on an Aesthetic of Literature,
is equally jproypcatiye_ and thoughtful.

In his illuminating brochure, The National Value of Ari,
Sri Aurobindo gives us a significant tract for the times. It is
the testament of a seer and is uttered in prophetic accents. In
the course of about fifty luminous pages, Sri Aurobindo memo-
rably stresses the aesthetic, intellectual and spiritual aspects
of art, in integral relation to the life of the nation. Only one
quotation can be extracted here :

“Poetry raises the emotions and gives each its separate
delight. Art stills the emotions and teaches them the delight
of a restrained and limited satisfaction, this indeed was


the characteristic that the Greeks, a nation of artists far
more artistic than poetic, tried to bring into their poetry.
Music deepens the emotions and harmonizes them with each
other. Between them, music, art and poetry are a perfect
education for the soul ; they make and keep its movements
purified, self-controlled, deep and harmonious. These, there-
fore, are agents which cannot profitably be neglected by
humanity on its onward march or degraded to the mere
satisfaction of sensuous pleasures which will disintegrate
rather than build character. They are, when properly used,
great educating, edifying and civilizing forces”.

We have necessarily to be brief about the other Indo-
Anglian art critics, and no more than a bare mention of the
names of some of the prominent among them is feasible within
the limits at our disposal. Mr. O^C. Gangoly and Mr. Aba-
nindranath Tagore have both done yeomen service towards
the interpretation of Indian Art. jAnanda Coomaraswamy’s meri-
torious publications include Rajput Painting, History of Indian
and Indonesian Art and The Transformation of Nature in Art.
Mn Dubash’s Hindu Art in its Social Setting is an interesting
bock to read ; MnJCj^n^^ in his An Approach

to Art, and Prof. JBaldoon Dhingra, in his Genius and Artistic
Enjoyment, have both made useful contributions to aesthetics ;
and Dr. R. K.^Yajnik’s The Indian Theatre is a very informa-
tive book on a most absortring subject. Other Indo-Anglian
art and music critics include Sam^janath Tagore, Gopinatha
Rao, Pratima Devi, N. C. Mehta, Atiya Begum and C. Subra-
tnairia Ayyar.


Indo-Anglian criticism proper is the criticism of English
authors and of English classics ; and here the odds are gene-
rally against the aspiring Indo-Anglian critic.


An Indian who wishes to pursue the apparently easy pro-
fession of literary criticism soon finds that the business is
not so easy as it appears to be. Our aspiring Indo-Anglian
critic has first to form in his mind certain categories current
in critical literature by a ^diligent _stud of good models from
Aristotle and Horace to Arnold and T. S. Eliot ; only when
this laborious process of assimilation is over, and this might
take several years even for persons of sensitive memory, can
the Indo-Anglian critic apply those categories to a given work
or body of creative literature.

It is not surprising, therefore, that under such conditions
of composition much Indo-Anglian criticism turns out to be
merely derivative, conventional or stale. Very rarely indeed
do we come across passages of direct, strong and personal
thinking. In England, serious literary criticism is done either
by the Professors of English or by eminent reviewers like Des^
mond MacCartJiy, Virginia Woolf and Sir John Squire. In
India, on the other hand, Professors of English almost as a
rule lack both the facilities and the inclination to attempt
serious literary criticism. There are professors who are con-
tent or even proud to be mere electioneering strategists and
zone dictators of pseudo-culture rather than conscientious
scholars or teachers ; many are so wretchedly paid and are so
overworked that they feel satisfied if they are able to do the
routine work of teaching and examining without a hitch ; some
are driven by sheer economic considerations to hack for some
shark publisher, writing ” notes ” at, say, six annas per page ;
and several more are merely and sublimely indolent and care
not for the laurels and^perils^of authorship.

Indeed, even those Professors of English who are obliged
to do some sort of critical work before they obtain their Docto-
rate degrees, more often than not relapse into somnolent
inactivity afterwards. This is due to an understandable fed-


ing of defeatism that the best they can do in the field is very
likely to look insignificant by the side of the works of criticism
that are being produced in the British and American univer-
sities. And yet one fervently hopes that there will be less
of this effeminate timidity and inaction in the future.

As for free-lance critics of the type of Desmond MacCartny
and Sir John Squire, our journalists are as a rule so very much
preoccupied with politics that they can hardly cultivate the
detachment of a literary critic. All-rounders like Nagendranath
Gupta, Sachchidananda Sinha and Narasimha Chintaman Kel-
Icar’Tiave given”us” some very good specimens of literary criti-
cism. Sir^Bo^nji^Wadia, a former Judge of the Bombay High
Court, gives us in essays like ” The Modern Literary Scene ”
literary criticism’ that is well-informed, discriminating and
beautifully expressed. But in India free-lance critics and
reviewers of current literature are either hacks or people who
do reviewing more or less as a hobby. This is so in Indo-
Anglian as well as in most vernacular literatures.

Notwithstanding all this, the Indo-Anglians have given
us many interesting and some even illuminating studies and
essays in criticism. Only a bare enumeration of some of the
more important of these books and studies is here possible.

Sir Brajendrapath Seal, one of the ” Old Guard “, author
of the philosophical poem, The Quest Eternal, also wrote a
number of critical essays, some of which are included in New
Essays in Criticism. Mr^Nagendranath Gupta, another of the
“Old Guard, was a penetrating critic, and the high quality
of his literary criticism can be seen in the essays included in
the collection, The Place of Man and Other Essays. Another
veteran. Mr. Narasimha Chinitaman Kelkar, contributed many


critical essays to ‘Fhe Mwhratta during the long years of his
close association with that paper.

Among Professors of English, it is now possible to find
quite a few who have adventured into the perilous unknown
of literary criticism. Dr^N-JK^ Siddhantajs The Heroic Age
Off India attempts to study the Indian epics, Ramaycma and
Mahabharata, in relation to the age in which they were pro-
duced ; his book is therefore complementary to Jfeofessor
Chadwick’s classic of criticism, The Heroic Age. Dr. Siddhanta
is a diligent student of English Language and Literature and
presides with distinction over the English Department of the
Lucknow University.

Of other professors who have turned critics, we may men-
tion the following : Prof-^P^ K^ Guha’s Tragic Relief is a
useful footnote to the vast and ever growing literature on
Tragedy as a literary form ; Dr. Sen Gupta has published a
thoughtful brochure on the Art of Bernard Shaw ; Prof.
Bhavani Shanker has given us a helpful and discriminating
study of Modern English Poetry. These books, and those that
are included in the selected reading lists, show that the Indo-
Anglians have of late shed their inferiority complex and
attempted serious literary criticism in English. Some of the
critical works of the Indo-Anglians have received a good press
in Britain no less than in India and have been ^sponsored by
responsible English and Indian publishers.


Shakespeare, in particular, has fascinated Indians and won
a secure place in their hearts. Shakespeare’s plays have been
translated into the Jndian vernaculars and Indian school boys
know the stories of King Lear and Othello and Shylock and
Macbeth almost as intimately as they know the stories of Sita


and Sakuntala and Duryodhana and Savitri. And books on
Shakespeare too books of all sortshave been appearing fre-
quently in English no less than in the major modern Indian
languages. As for journalistical studies on Shakespeare, their
name is indeed legion.

Three or four decades ago, a gentleman by name JRentala
Venkata Subba JR|ui jpublished two extraordinary and volu-
minous books, Othello Unveiled and Hamlet Unveiled, in which
he seemed to see a lot more in the two tragedies than Shakes-
peare himself probably did. Perhaps, their value is negligible
as criticism ; but they deserve to be read as tantalizing struc-
tures of fancy in other words, as independent fictional essays
on the careers of Hamlet and Othello.

Principal ^K. M. Khadye, Dean of the Faculty of Arts
of the Bombay University, has published thoughtful studies of
two of Shakespeare’s plays, Antony and Cleopatra and A
Winter’s Tale.

Prof. P. G. Sahasranama Iyer, formerly of the Travancore
University, has published a small brochure entitled, Tragi-
Comedy in English and {Sanskrit Literatures ; in this eye-
opener, Prof. Iyer has pertinently drawn our attention to the
parallels between plays like Svapnavasavadatta and Mrichcha-
katika on the one hand and Cymbeline, A Winter’s Tale and
(The Tempest on the other.

JProf. Amaranatha Jha, the present Vice-Chancellor of the
University of Allahabad, is both a well-informed and genuinely
enthusiastic student of English literature ; besides he wields
an attractive* pen. In addition to his thoughtful volume, Lite-
wry Studies, Professor Jha has^ also published stimulating
studies of Wilfrid Gibson, Rudyard Kipling, W. B. Yeats, Ton*
Dutt, A. E. Housman, Frederick Harrison and John Morley.
Further, he has published, not only a discriminating study of
Shakespearian Comedy, but also learned papers~on “Shakes-


peare’s Plant-Lore”, “From Ape to Man in Shakespeare”
and ” Shakespeare’s Use of the Monosyllable “. Professor Jha
is a master of many languages English, Sanskrit, Maithili,
Hindi, Bengali and is a true heir, in name and fame and
scholarship, to the Ganganath Jha tradition.

^ R^fessorjr^M. Advani^of the D. J. Sind College, Karachi,
has published valuable papers on “Wordsworth as a Moral
Teacher”, “Literature and Life”, “Tennyson and the Pro-
blem of Immortality” and “Carlyle’s Conception of the
Hero “; as a close student of Shakespeare, he has given us very
interesting papers on ” The Womanly Woman of Shakespeare “,
” The Fools of Shakespeare ” and ” Crime and Punishment
in Shakespeare “.

Dr._R. G. Shahani’s Shakespeare through Eastern Byes, a
competent re-hash of existing material, is nevertheless a very
readable book, inspired by genuine enthusiasm for the Master
Dramatist. Dr. Shahani has also very recently published a
rather controversial book, A White Man in {Search of God.


Special mention should be made of Prof-JV^ K,^Ayappan
Pillai’s Shakespeare Criticism, an interesting and reliable sur-
vey from the beginnings to Dr. Johnson. ” The appreciation
of literature in a particular age is virtually the touchstone of the
age the standard by which the Zeit-Geist should be judged ” :
it is from this sane standpoint that Prof. Pillai considers the
vicissitudes of Shakespeare criticism in England from contem-
porary estimates to the time of Dr. Johnson and his famous
edition of Shakespeare’s plays. It is an eminently readable
and stimulating account of what prominent men and men of
letters have said or written about Shakespeare and it almost
constitutes a history of literary taste during the seventeenth


and eighteenth centuries. When the lectures that constitute the
book were originally delivered, it appears that, day after day,
” a crowded hall listened in tense silence”. Prof. Pillai’s book
is an invaluable introduction to Augustus Ralli’s monumental
volumes on the subject ; and it is to be hoped that Prof. Pillai
will complete his survey by publishing a supplementary volume
or two. Prof. Pillai has also published papers on ” The Song
of Roland 1 ” and ” Fables and Fabulists “.

Finally, Dr. C^ Narayana Menonfe Shakespeare Criticism :
An Essay in Synthem^lVSK) is that rare thing an original
book on Shakespeare that is scholarly, sane and stimulating
at the same time. Dr. Menon, who is a Professor of English
in the Benares Hindu University, aims at showing that ” the
kernel of every Shakespearian play tragedy, comedy, or his-
tory is the potential in us … When the emotional stress is
shifted from the centre to the circumference, and from the
circumference to a point outside the design, tragedy changes
inlto comedy and history”. Throughout his absorbing essay,
Dr. Menon shows that his heart is as active as is his head
and hence he is able to produce a convincing impression of his
intelligent reactions to the multiverses of Shakespearian drama.
Dr. Menon has lived in Shakespeare, and his interpretations
are often intuitive and are expressed in sutra form. While
his conclusions are intuitive, he has also corroborated them with
an imposing load of “authorities”; we have thus in Shakes-
peaxre Criticism 2t true ” essay in synthesis “, an inspiring fusion
of Western and Eastern criticism.

Dr. Menon’s more recent brochure, An Approach to the
Ramayana, also reveals the same healthy qualities. His view
is that the Ramayana ” represents a synthesis of the cults and
cultures prevalent in different parts of India. Jtjs the first
Ppem of Akhand Hindustan “. In less than thirty pages of
“padked” thought,” Dr. Menon “ably establishes his thesis that a


study of this great national epic ” is consistent with both reason
and self-respect”.

Prof. R. Sadasiva Aiyar, whose King Lear, Hamlet and
The Tempest maintain a very high standard of scholarship and
criticism, has also recently broken fresh ground in his thought-
ful essay, ” The Ramaycma in the light of Aristotle’s Poetics “.



In an earlier chapter, we have considered Sri Aurobindo
as a poet and as a prose writer ; but Sri Aurobindo is also a

j^ifo^ndeed the most outstanding and inspiring of Indo-
Anglian critics. His studies of Bankim Chandra and Kalidasa,

luminous essays both, are available in book form ; but the series
of thirty-two essays that he contributed to the columns of
the Arya over (two decades ago under the general title, The
Future Poetry, has not yet been made available to us in a
handy form. This extraordinary series of critical essays really
began as a notice of Dr. J. H . Gousins’s New Ways in English
Literature ; the review, however, was only a starting point, for
the massive argument was drawn rather from Sri Aurobindo’s
own jdeas and his already conceived view of Art and life.
^(The Future Poetry takes up about three hundred and fifty
pages of the Arya”””>. – – **., H


A word now about reviewers. Reviewing of new literature
is not very efficiently done in India, although there are not-
able exceptions like The Hindu, The Modern Review, The
Indian Review, The Aryan Path, The New Review, The Hindu-
stan Review and The Indian P. E. N. The Literary Supple-
ment of The Hindu at one time enjoyed a considerable vogue
and commanded the services of a notable band of reviewers.
Under the stress of war-time economy, it has now lost much of
its well-merited importance and the reviews that now appear in
its columns are often scrappy and sometimes even perverse.
It is to be earnestly hoped that as the war is over The Hindu
will once again publish an efficient Literary Supplement, some-
what along the lines of the Times Literary Supplement. And,
of late, the All-India Weekly has developed into a full-blooded
literary paper, rather analogous to the John O’ London’s

When the Literary Supplement of The Hindu was issued
every Wednesday, discriminating readers gave special impor-
tance to th6 reviews appearing over the initials ” K. S.”
” K. S.” is, in fact, Professor K. Swaminathan of the Madras
Presidency College. We have already referred to his excellent
edition of Trevelyan’s Lifie of Macaulay ; it is a thorough piece
of work and gives one an idea of the kind of work he can do
if he likes. But he is or till lately he was–generally conten-
ted with reviewing current literature in The Hindu.

Some of Prof. Swaminathan’s reviews like the review of
Walter de la Mare’s poems, for example are fine essays in
criticism, discriminating in their judgments and careful, per-
haps extra careful, in their phrasing. Even if he is but
summarizing his author, one cannot but admire the lucid clarity
of a passage like this:

” In Milton, there is a dualism which is not only self-
conscious but deliberately artistic. This dualism, however,.


is one of forces, not of purpose. Sensuous desire and chas-
tity are brought together by their mutual passion for conflict,
jntoleranoe, fierce and fanatical, is the very life-
breath of Milton’s poetry land the one principle of union
between his fell, incensed and mighty opposites. The conflict,
which is the central theme of Milton from Comus to Samson,
is not internal or mental, but external and material. * The
dark unfathomed infinite abyss’ that Shakespeare explores
with wandering feet is within the mind of Troilus, Hamlet,
Othello, Lear ; but Satan’s perilous journey, long and hard,
takes him through a pondciable chaos”.

Occasionally, K. S. can bejpompoujjjtnd pontifical as in :
** we have refrained from bespattering this notice with epi-
Jjaets-.of indiscriminate laudation” or ” most Indo- Anglian
poetry is born dead and deserves and is doomed to prompt and
perpetual damnation ” or ” fabricate a format_pf this studied
and unstinted sumptuousness “. He also often exhibits a fatal
weakness for discovering echoes rather indiscriminately : for
instance, while reviewing Dr. Cou sins’ s poetry, he discovers in
it echoes from Browning, Belloc, Spenser, Shelley, Tennyson,
Francis Thompson and Milton. He may be right, but the
method tends to become a vexatious affectation. His extreme
self-consciousness also sometimes prevents him from apprehend^
_ing the sheer authentic in new literature. Only rarely can K.
S. wholeheartedly surrender himself to a book or an author ;
and the result is that the self-conscious reviewer often stifles
the lover of literature ! But, on the whole, K. S. is a reliable
critic and a fastidious scholar and a conscientious teacher of
English Literature.



Biography is not a trifling matter of putting together facts
and dates and letters and speeches and what not ; Jsipgraphj
is an art and it should be cultivated as an art. But we have
~hot~as~yeTnany~ examples of good Indo- Anglian biography;
we have produced no Boswell, no Aubrey, no Lytton Strachey ;
otir massive biographies are unreadable and our shorter ones
puerile. A book like Dhanakoti Raju’s Queen Empress Victoria,
her Life and Times (1887) is merely a haphazard compilation,
but it gives the pattern of the general run of so-called biogra-
phies published in India. Journalistic hacks put together in a
mood of incredible hurry stray speeches and statements and
scatter a number of dates in between ; the resulting monstro-
sity is supposed to do duty for a biography !

Messrs. G. A. Natesan of Madras have published a number
of brief biographies turned out according to an unalterable
formula and they are informative and they have no doubt
their own uses ; but they never aspire to be true biographies
like those of Plutarch’s or Johnson’s.

Nagendranath Ghose’s Memoirs of Maharaja Nubkissen
Bahadur and Kristo Das Pal are early Indo-Anglian attempts
at serious biography ; but they cannot be said to be successes.
Of more recent attempts, we may mention Bepin Chandra Pal’s
Mrs. Annie Besant and Sir Dinsha Wacha’s admirable /. N.
Tata : his Life and Life-Work.

Principal T. K. Shahani’s Gopal Krishna- Gokhale, des-
cribed as a “Historical Biography^, is a very competent piece
of work! it is carefully documented, and it shows a complete
grasp of the political and economic questions which Gokhale
was called upon to tackle in his all too brief public career.


Gokhale’s early years, his ” apprenticeship “, his determination
to dedicate his all to the Motherland, his grasp of questions
relating to Indian finance, his moderatism, his pioneering labours
in the cause of education, all are surveyed in considerable
detail. ^Principal Shahani’s 400-page biography is an iifl>(>ipg w
record of the^ career of one of India’s greatest men ; but it does
not show us Gokhale the man ; and it is therefore necessary to
turn also to the Rt. Hon. Srinivasa Sastri’s Mysore University
Extension Lectures on the life of Gokhale to get a complete
picture of the departed patriot and statesman.
“Mr. Sastri’s Life of Gokhale is a collection of

speeches on the subject to evening audiences in Bangalore, And
yet the book is all the better for it and the more resplendently
does the personality of Gokhale shine on its radiant pages.
Like all good biographies, Mr. Sastri’s Life of Gokhale also
enables us to know intimately both the hero and the bio-
grapher ; and spoken throughout in the pellucid prose of which
Mr. Sastri is so absolute a master, Life of Gokhale is a book
which familiarly shares confidence with us rather than ponti-
fically imparts information to us ; it is, in short, the work of
a Boswell on Dr. Johnson, and it is consequently splendid stuff.
Mr. Sastri’s recent address on Mahadev Govind Ranade,
smaller in scope than the lectures on Gokhale, reveals nonethe-
less the same qualities of divination and sheer literary artistry.


There are other useful and informative biographical studies
also which may be appropriately referred to here : P. C. Ray’s
Life tend Times^of C. R. Das, Sir Jogendra SinghT*Giirii Na-
nak, Kartar Singh’s Gum Gouind Singh. S. Natarajan’s Ldlu-
ffKai Samaldas, Anup Singh’s Nehru, the Rising Star of India,
the present writer’s^. Srinivasa lyengar and Iqbal Singh’s Gau-
tama Buddha. Many so-called Indian biographies are merely


political or philosophical essays, or no more than chronicles ;
and hence they rarely succeed in revealing the contours of the
very human personalities of the respective heroes.

Professor Correia-Afonso’s \The {Spirit of Xavier is an ade-
quately documented, yet very readable and inspiring, study of
the great St. Francis Xavier, the Apostle of the Indies. Prof.
Correia-Afonso succinctly calls St. Xavier “the a Kempis of
action : his life is the Imitation of Christ “. The Spaniard,
the scholar, the Jesuit, the missionary, the saint, these facets
of Xavier are one by one lovingly and reverently delineated ;
and an inspiring picture emerges at last.

perhaps, the single outstanding example of Indo-Anglian
biography is Sir Rustom Masani’s Dadabhai Naoroji, a vera-
“cious, conscientious and thorough piece of work. TRe nar-
rative is lucid and straight-forward ; the book is interspersed
with many self-revealing letters ; and the remorseless march- of
the years and the procession of the events coalesce naturally
with the life-story of the Grand Old Man, one of the makers
of modern India.

Sir Rustom has succeeded where others have so signally
failed because he alone has fully realized the importance of
personal letters and he alone has evinced both sympathy with
the subject and respect for Truth ; and he alone has had at
once the patience to collect all the available material and the
discrimination to utilize only the most significant among them.

It may be added, in conclusion, that thfe task of the Indo-
Anglian biographer is difficult, if not impossible, because our
heroes do not (generally speaking) keep diaries or write lone:
or self-revealing letters ; even if they do, they are very soon
lost and do not become available to the biographer. That is
the reason why our biographies tend to lay more emphasis on
the heroes’ public life or publicly expressed opinions than on
their “inner” life, their human attitudes, occupations, and


foibles or the interesting circumstances of their private life.
It is a pity that we cannot know our heroes a Pandit Motilal
Nehru, a Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a Lalk Lajpat Rai, an S. Srini-
vasa lyengar, as intimately as we can a Dr. Johnson or a
Walter Scott or a Disraeli.

JVIr. N. C. Kelkar’s Marathi biography of Lokamanya
Tilak has been in part translated into English, andTt is~a jmefi-
torious work indeed, being a biography in the Boswellian tradi-
tion ; but we want more such books, more and more of them,
in English and in the vernaculars.


While the Indo-Anglians have given us few good biogra-
phies, they have been more successful in attempting miniature
portraits after the manner of A. G. Gardiner, Philip Guedella,
Hannen Swaffer, Ernest Raymond and Harold Laski.

Mr. Iswara Dutt’s Sparks and Fumes contains pen-pictures
of thirteen Andhra leaders like C. R. Reddy, C. Y. Chintamani,
Konda Venkatappiah, T. Prakasam, B. Sambamurti and
^Pattabhi Sitaramiah.’ The sketches are all eminently readable
and enjoyable and we can but echo the late Mr. S. Srinivasa
lyengar’s words in the Foreword : ” His phrasing is crisp and
convincing, his style has both vigour and freshness, and his
delineation is characterized by shrewdness and subtlety “. We
have to content ourselves with only a single extract, taken from
the essay on Bulusu Sambamurti .

” He is always one step in advance of the national regi-
ment. To him Dr. Pattabhi is an extremist among moder-
ates and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru a moderate among extre-
mists. Ipso facto, he is an extremist among extremists.
Primarily a man for direct action, he would laugh to scorn
all puerile controversies and petty wranglings, and openly sneer
at all mellifluous apologies to consecrated political tradi-
16 “~


tions. … He turns Nelson’s blind eye to all verbal tight-
rope dance, and hears only the paeans of the battle-field.”

Mr. K. Chandraselcharan’s Persons and Personalities,.
being the work of a lawyer rather than that of a journalist, is
InSSreludlciar and less vivacious/ Mr. Chandrasekharan writes
soberly and thereby sometimes leaves a more lasting impres-
sion than others do with their , seeming glitter and raciness.
For one thing, Chandrasekharan writes of people whom he has
personally known, people (let us say) in the delectable regions
of Mylapore. That is the reason why Chandrasekharan deli-
vers the goods without fuss and without a hitch. Not only are
* persons ‘ like the Rt. Hon. Srinivasa Sastri, Sir S. Varadachari,
Sir C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar and Mr. Venkataramani snapped
convincingly in these pages, but ‘ personalities ‘ like ” My Fav-
ourite Guest”, “My Family, Friend”, “My Teacher” and
“My Pundit” are also charmingly portrayed. It is the true
measure of Chandrasekharan’s distinction as a portraitist that
his sketches are written ” in simple ‘and elegant prose and with
a justness of appreciation and real understanding “.

f India ^ ^contains thumb-

nail sketches of Abul Kalam Azad, C. Rajagopalachaii. Saro-
TuirNaidu, Jayaprakash Narain and other front-rank leaders.
THe portraits are somewhat journalistically written and appeal
to the reader at once.

jKhasa Subba Rau^Mitt in the Limelight is a collection
* tw fL ve P?tE?T tra ^ s * There are politicians, journalists like
Pothan Joseph andTKT Srinivasan, a philosopher like Professor
Radhakrishnan, an idealist like S. Doraiswami Iyer ; but in-
evitably the politicians outnumber the rest. Subba Rau is a
facile writer and writes freely and even fearlessly. One of the
best essays in the collection is that on the late S. Srinivasa
lyengar; the lawyer, the politician, the dynamic leader, the
brave Achilles sulking in his tents, the statesman, these facets


of the great departed leader’s personality are lovingly touched
and a fine portrait emerges in the end. Here is a memorable
^ngp of the lawyer :

” In the High Court, where he is undoubtedly the most
distinguished legal practitioner of his generation, his bearing
is one of quiet confidence. Punctilious punctuality, a mas-
tery over self that never wavers or permits the slightest loss
of temper, a reserve so complete as to be almost forbidding
and to ward off all familiarities from the officious, are the
ingredients of his external functioning as an advocate. Years
of practice have fashioned out of them a standard of pro-
fessional comportment unmatched for its suggestion of latent
power without any taint of affectation or a desire to impress,
a rare combination of attributes which may be regarded as
the essence of artistry in the craftsmanship of advocacy.
Under this disciplined exterior is a veritable dynamo of un-
canny cerebral activity going on in the midst of an almost
oceanic immensity of legal knowledge, and the jreverenoe
evoked in consequence whenever he enters any gathering of

lawyers amounts to a feeling of awe He walks the courts

apparently as all other advocates do, but hushed sensation
follows his footsteps as a symbol of mental homage and he
is treated by Bench and Bar alike as an Olympian whose
supremacy none dare challenge.”

The same crispness in phrasing is also evident in the other
sketches in Men in the Limelight.

^^S^hdhidananda Sinha, who has meritoriously distin-
guished himself in many walks of life, who has been eminent
in the fields of law, education, journalism and public life, has
also been publishing from time to time character-sketches of
his eminent contemporaries ; to read Dr. Sinha’s sketches of
Dr. Ganganath Jha or Devamitta Dharmapala or Dr. Rajendra
Prasad is to exchange pulses with these great personalities as


also with the great’ scholar-journalist who has served the
Mother in many capacities over a period of five or more
decades. *

Special mention must also be made of Professor A. A

-* -. r jf f l^.

Wadia’s Mahatma Gandhi, an original character-study m the
“form of a discussion between four persons, representing foui
points of view. The book is sui generis, and has properly
become a best-seller.

In conclusion it may be stated that it is, on the whole,
rather difficult for Indians to write good biographies and
character-sketches, not only on account of thejgaucity of easily
accessible data in the form of letters and diaries, but also
because with us, as Mr. S. Srinivasa lyengar once clinchingly
put it, ” the skin is still sensitive to criticism but gluttonous to
flattery “. To be both sympathetic and just is like walking on
the ‘razor’s edge and few Indo-Anglians are quite able to achieve
the feat. Anyhow, we have begun with a fair number of credit-
able bi^raphies jnd miniatures, and we should be able to do
better in the future.


In the field of auto-biography, on the other hand, the
Indo-Anglians have given us many interesting and two or
three triumphant exhibits. JRajaJ^ammohan Roy wrote a brief
autobiographical sketch in English which is reproduced in Raja
JRao and Iqbal Singh’s Changing India ; and many autobio-
graphies and autobiographical sketches have appeared since in
English as well as in the vernaculars.

JMaharshi Debendranath Tagore’s autobiography, which
has Been rendered into English by SatyendranalK Tagore and
Indira Devi, is an inspiring piece of writing. Jk> is Mahatma
Gandhi’s autobiography, My Experiments with Truth, Eng-
lish^T)eaufiTu!Iy ~by~ flieTMe Mahadeo Desai. If the original


is a Gujarat! classic, Mahadev Desai’s version is no less an
English classic. The autobiography is written with utter
honesty, a painstaking accuracy, and a disarming candour.

It is said that anyone almost can write an absorbing auto-
biography if he is unashamedly candid and sincere and if he can
also write with ease. And when the writer is a person of the
eminence of Mahatma Gandhi, who has lived life intensely and
richly and variously, the result is bound to be a masterpiece
and so indeed it is. Gandhi hides nothing ; he spares none,
least of all himself ; he has absolutely no axes to grind. A
beautifuHranquillity shines on the pages of the autobiography ;
school life or dietetics or bmhmacharya or politics, they are
all truthfully and ^serenely told with neither extenuation nor
special pleading. Whether we consider it as a record of ‘righte-
ous adventure or as a moral tract or simply as a model of
pellucid writing, Gandhi’s autobiography is a vastly import-
ant work.

JPaiadit Jawaharlal Nehru’s Autobiography has been a
best-seller in India and in England, and even in America, since
its publication a few years ago. The causes of its popularity
are not difficult to enumerate. It is, in the first place, the
autobiography of one of India’s foremost leaders, one who
is often identified with Renascent India itself in the throes of
her rebirth. It is, in the second place, a fairly accurate picture
of Indian politics during the twenties and thirties, snapped
from the vantage ground of what one might call popular extre-
mism. It is, in the third place, a very readable book, fresh and
conversational in tone, faultless and unlaboured in its idiom.

The book runs to over six hundred pages ; and yet there
is no dull page in the book. JP^ndit Nehru wrote the book in
prison between June 1934 and February 1935 ; he saw it
TKrougfi “the” press when his wife, Kamala Nehru, was lying
seriously ill in a continental sanatorium ; and he dedicated it


to ” Kamala who is no more “. Perhaps, had Pandit Nehru
found time to write an Autobiography in his own Allahabad
residence, he might have produced a tome more full of facts
and dates and extracts and cross-references than the one we
now possess ; and less of an autobiography it would have been!
A personal statement is what we want and this is what he gives
us in his Autobiography ; indeed, the book would be even
better than it is did it contain less politics and more humanity.

Pandit Jawaharlal’s political graph was determined by the
trilinear co-ordinates of Motilal Nehru, a prolonged education
in England, and the impact of Mahatma Gandhi on Young
India ; the graph has held to its own course and followed its
own unique undulations without a doubt ; but always it has
felt the necessity to draw its strength from these three influ-
ences. It is interesting, even instructive, to follow step by step
Jawaharlars transformation from the ” prig ” who returned to
India in the autumn of 1912 through war-time politics,
Rowlatt Satyagraha, Non-co-operation, Municipal politics, the
Brussels Congress, the Independence movement, and Salt
Satyagraha into the President of the Congress. JjLJ_the
story ot two decades of Indian politics but our interest is all
the time claimed by the hero of the pages, Pandit Nehru

The autobiographer should be thoroughly honest ; he
should not be afraid of looking a fool ; he is writing, not to
make out a case for himself, but to lay bare the ” facts of the
case” about himself. Pandit Nehru knows this and generally
refrains from writing about things that might defeat his pur-
pose. And when he writes about his own feelings and the
results of his own self-introspections, there is. just that combi-
nation of self-control and self-knowledge out of which great
autobiography is made.

Fen-pictures of several leaders, snaps of many more, are


scattered in the pages of the book. Some of the judgments are
biassed ; some are too harsh ; the .withering allusion to the
Rt. Hon. Srinivasa Sastri’s address to students on the neces-
sity of discipline savours too much of the Bright Young Thing,
while the vehemence of the attacks against rival schools of
political thought betrays a cocksureness that is more amate-
urish than profound. But all is redeemed by a pervading
openheartedness and an unfailing clarity of expression. It is
beyond question one of the great autobiographies of our time.


Subhas Bose’s autobiography,_Aw Indian Pilgrim, reputed
to be the genuine article, has not yet had its chance In Indiau
The full-length autobiographies of Sir P. C. Ray and Sir
Surendranath Bannerjee are also very inspiring stuff and
deserve a greater vogue than they enjoy at present.

Many other Indo-Anglians have produced partial auto-
biographies or travel sketches. JRabindranath Tagore’s Aty
Reminiscences jsjull of memorable bursts of self-revelation and
Is written in beautiful prose. The late G. K. Chettur’s The
Last Enchmtment, like Karaka’s The Pulse of Oxford, is a
book on Oxford ; in it Chettur’s humanity is revealed as fully
as his mastery over English.

JMr. K. M. Munshi’s / Follow the Mahatma is an arrest-
ing record that helps_us to^ understand both_ Munsfai and
“MahatmajjL It is also, like Jawaharlal’s Autobiography, a
personal political record, inspired by a fervent patriotism and
written with candour and ease.

^Travel fioofcs lire in a class apart. And some of them-
for instance, ^L S. Wadia’s The CM of the World, A. S. P.
Ayyar*s An Indian” w Western ~Eurof>eT5. Natarajan’s West of
Suez, Karaka’g Chunking Diary and K. S. Bannerjee’s Across
the Near East show that our travellers have a wide-awake


curiosity and are willing to take the trouble to share their ex-
periences with others. Mr. Wadia’s book takes us round the
worldBritain^ Ameri(^andl:he Far East ; his is a scholar’s
record, and if is replete with literary echoes and apt quotations
from a variety of literary celebrities. Ayyar’s is a straight-
forward and informative book and it is written with convincing
sincerity and forced* “Karaka’s book is competent journalism
but, as Mr. Edgar Snow points out, it has a practical as well
as an entertainment value ; for, it is indeed ” a vivid document
of personal experience, a lively and witty^ response to the
stimuli of a historic struggle going on in India’s front-yard “.

Natarajan’s West of Suez is also journalistically written,
but it has much more than an ephemeral value. Natarajan
writes clearly, directly, and effectively ; he has courage to call
a spade a spade ; he describes men and things, movements and
ideas ; and he not seldom allows us to get near to him, and
exchange confidences with him.



Many Indians have published historical surveys and
studies in the English language. JPramji Dosabhai’s The
Parsees : ^their History, Manners, Customs and Religion was
published as early as 1858. Rajendralal Mitra published a
similar study, the Parsees of Bombay, in 1880 ; he was also
the author of The ^MiquiMs tf Orissa and Indo-Aryans,
sumptuous volumes both. Other early historical studies are
Romesh Chunder Dutt’s A History of Civilization in Ancient
Tn3Ta t ‘TTie ~ Economic History of British India, India in the
Victorian Age and Later tliridu Civilization.


Syed Ahmad Khan, the eminent Muslim educationist and
social reformer, wrote a competent Archaeological History of.
“Delhi while Jiis no less distinguished son, Syed Mahmood the
jurist, wrote a History oj Education in India. Another eminent
“Muslim, the Rt Hon. Syed Ameer Ali, published A Short
History af the Saracens.

Mahadev Govind Ranade, often called the ” father of
Indian Economics “, was versatile in his accomplishments and
Vas indeed one of the makers of modern India. His monu-
mental historical work, The Rise of the Maratha Power, was
published in 1900. Barrister V. D. Savarkar’s more recent
book, Hindu Pad Padshahi, is another eye-opener in regard to
one of the inspiring chapters of Indian history.

Among the other historical studies published in the last
century, we may here mention JVL^N. Mehta’s Native States of
India, J. N. Bhattacharya’s Hindu Castes and Sects and P.
N”. Bose’s Hindu Civilization under British Rule. Many more
titles might be listed, but these books, however meritorious in
themselves, are nowadays untouched by any except antiqua-
rians and researchers ; but there they are, symbols of the
industry of an earlier generation of Indo-Anglians.


In the twentieth century, historical works are being pub-
lished in very considerable numbers. Research journals have
been started in different parts of the country and some of them
are doing very good work indeed ; two of these, the Indian
Historical Quarterly and the Journal of Indian History, are
on an all-India basis, while others like the Journal of the Bihar
and Orissa Historical Research Society or the Jama Quarterly,
are conducted on sectional or regional lines. No doubt, only
rarely do ” research ” papers achieve readability ; addressed
to a select class of readers, weighted with loads of footnotes and


innumerable citations, they generally frighten the common

, And yet a historical narrative can be made at once autho-
ritative and irresistibly interesting. A great historian will give
his narrative the sinuosity and the curve, the roar and the
march, the beauty and the significance, of a true heroic poem.
A Herodotus, a Caesar, a Gibbon, a Carlyle, a Macaulay,
they are all historians ar^d they are also men_of letters in their
owjr^ rijght It is the artist’s, the poet’s, privilege to ‘see the
significance behind a multitude of isolated facts and dates and
names and details, while the mere researcher is but a plodder,
at best no more than a hewer of wood and a drawer of water
for the imaginative historian who makes a historical record a
work of prose art.

Sir Jadunath Sarcar is easily the most outstanding figure
among the Indo- Anglian historians. His well-known History
vf “Aurangazib in five volumes is both meritorious as history
and fascinating as literature. His other books include Fall of
the Mughal Empire, India through the Ages, Shivaji and
Chaitanya. Sir Jadunath wields a powerful prose style which
reduces to order, shapeliness and beauty the stories of Shivaji
and Chaitanya and of the long and fateful reign of Emperor

Various other historians also have achieved the feat of
iiarmonizing severe scholarship with readability and even
beauty. Prof. K. T. Shah is a brilliant economist and political
xwnmentator ; his Post-War Germany and The Russian Ex-
periment are useful and interesting studies ; his books on the
Government of India Act of 1935 and on India’s present-day
problems are all written trenchantly ; it is, however, in his
massive volume, The Splendour that was Ind, thatJProf. Shah,
jives us an inspiring record of the vicissitudes and indubitably


achievements of Indian civilization. jOr. Radhakumud Muker-
Jea also has given a useful treatise on Hindu CiffliirifdrL “~

Of the other Indo- Anglian historians, IshvyarMPrasad
JP. T. Srinivasa lyengar, A. Yusuf AH, and a few others staric
prominent. These distinguished scholars have published spe-
cialist studies of various epochs of Indian history ; but, gene-
rally speaking, either their works are too specialist and heavy
or, when they attempt popular history, their works are just
school and college text-books. Although an Ishwari Prasad or
a j^ilakanta Sastri is better informed than most European
students of Indian history, it is nevertheless a Vincent Smith
or a Sir George Dunbar who produces a readable x history of
India for the general reader no less than for the college student.

It is, therefore, to be hoped that the Indo-Anglians will
give us in the future, not merely scholarly treatises, but also
historical surveys that will attract and hold the attention of
the common reader. Some at least of our historians, who like
Jadunath Sarcar have a gift for style, should strive to be our
Trevelyans and Fishers and Wingfield-Stratfords. In other
words, our best historical studies should aspire to the status
of literature. And historians like Romesh Chunder Dutt and
Jadunath Sarcar have shown already that the task is not


While professors and teachers have no doubt given us
many useful and reliable histories while some of them have
devoted many long years to untie the bafflingjmots in human
history they are not the only people who have attempted to
tell the stories of men and of nations. In the midst of a busy
professional life, Ranade was able to wrltcTa history of the rise
‘of “the Maratha power; likewise Lokamanya Tilak produced
TiisT stimulating and thoughtful studies, Orion and The Arctic


of^Jhe Vedas -, Major M. D. Basu, wrote a number of
books on the British period of Indian History ; Mr^Ambika
CharanJWajumdas Indian National Evolution and Dr. Pat-
tabhi Sitaramajxa’s History of the Indian National Congress
^Sne^toth very well written and are very reliable records ; and”
LalFLajpat Rail’s Unhappy India also may be roughly classed
with these illuminating surveys and historical studies.

But, perhaps, no popular history by an Indo-Anglian has
quite achieved the vogue of Jawaharlal Nehru’s Glimpses of
World History. It is chattily written and consists of ^a series of
familiar letters addressed to his daughter, Indira. The Glimpses
is by no means a historical treatise ; ” I have given you “, he
‘says in the last letter, ” the barest outline ; this is not history ;
they are but fleeting glimpses of our long past “. Pandit Nehru
is 4 clever chronicler, charmed by thejpageant of world history,
and he re-tells the oft-told tale in an animated and self-
confident manner. ~~

The Glimpses has become somewhat of a best-seller in the

English-speaking countries. Jawaharlal is certainly among the

finest of present-day English prose writers and his epistles

hum and spaikle and argue and prophesy with a singular cock-

sureness and charm that capture our imagination at once.

Towards the close of his book, Jawaharlal assures his daughter :

” If, then, you look upon past history with the eye of

sympathy, the dry bones will fill up with flesh and blood,

and you will see a mighty procession of living men and

women and children in every age and every clime, different

from us and yet very like us, with much the same human

virtues and human failings. History is not a magic show,

but there is plenty of magic in it for those who have eyes to


And certainly many a letter in Glimpses of World History
proves a charmed magic casement and ” innumerable pictures


from the gallery of history crowd our minds “. To young and
old alike, reading the Glimpses will ever prove a most en-
lightening experience.


Philosophy has always attracted the Indo-Anglians. The
impact of the West on the Orient compelled a reconsideration
and revaluation of India’s religions and philosophies ; and in
due course philosophical studies and treatises appeared in

Raja Rammohan Roy was one of the first, if not the very
first, to attempt an exposition of the basic truths of Hinduism
through the medium of English. He published a number of
thoughtful brochures like A Defence of Hindu Theism and
Divine Worship by means of Gayuttree. Although Ralnmohan
is often wrongly represented, especially by some Christian mis-
sionaries, as a total rebel against Hinduism, he was really, as
Dr. Wingfield-Stratford has wisely discerned, ” a loyal Hindu,
a Brahman of the Brahmans, steeped in the lore of the Upa-
nishads and making his life’s work the restoration of the Hindu
faith to its pristine simplicity “.

Many writers, Hindu and Muslim, soon followed in the
wake of Rammohan’s inspiring example and we have had in
consequence a considerable harvest of philosophical literature.
Some of these early publications include Gangopadhyaya’s Life
“and Religion of the Hindus (I860), Chandra’s Brahmanism
( 1870) ,^Syed[ Ameer Ali’s Ethics* of Islam and The Spirit oj
Islam, P. C. Majumdar’s Lowell Lectures on Hindu Religion and
Society and^Sir^Brajgidranath ^^^Comjmatm Studies, in
Vaishnavism and Christianity.

Meanwhile two very helpful books appeared which gave
a fillip Jo the new scholarship : j^endrabala^ Mitra j ” A
Scheme for the rendering of European Scientific Terms into


the Vernaculars of India” (1877) and Ramakrishna Gopal
Bhandarkafs “Critical, comgarative, and. historical method of
inquiry as j^Dplied to Sanskrit scholarship jand philosophyjand
Indian Archaeology” (1888). Another book of like nature, An
Introduction” to Textual Criticism, has very recently been
published by Dr. S. M. Katre of the Deoc^n College Research

Eh-. Bhandarkar himself applied the method of inquiry he
had explained in the above brochure to a critical study of
Indian languages, literatures and philosophical systems. He
published jrvery lajrge number of learned papers on a variety
of subjects and^some of his books, for instance Vaishnavism^
Shaivism and Minor Religious Systems and his Grammars of the
Sanskrit language, are still very widely used and admired.
vOther well-known scholars like the late JK. T. Telang^
e, Y. Rangacharya and K. Sundara-

raman also did yeomen service to English readers by either
translating Sanskrit classics into English or by publishing com-
mentaries or criticisms of the same. Tdan^s translation; erf
the Bhagavad Gita and Rangacharya’s lectures on the Gita in
three massive volumes no less than Ganganath Jha’s and
Sundararaman’s learned introductions and commentaries de-
serve special mention here. And Swami Ram Tirth’s innumer-
able lectures on Hindu philosophy can still be read with much”
pleasure and profit.


It was, however, Swami Vivekananda that first definitely
gut^ Indian philosophy on the world map^ His addresses on
Vedanta philosophy, his lectures on Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga,
Raja Yoga and Jnana Yoga, and his beautiful monographs
on Hinduism and Vedanta, all took India by storm about forty
years ago. Vivekananda was a popularizer of genius ; but


he was a creative philosophical thinker also at the same time,
He played a competent St. Paul to the great Jesus that
Ramakrishna had been. ‘

Vivekananda’s active caneer was compressed into a brief
period ; ” like a meteor of the first magnitude ” to quote Mr.
N. C. Kelkar, ” he lighted up the face of his country and
went down the horizon all within ten short years “. But even
within this brief span, he laid the foundations of the Rama-
krishna Asram on a secure basis and left it to continue his
great work. His ideal can be summed up in his own words :

” The gift of India is the gift of religion and philosophy,
wisdom and spirituality ; and religion does not want cohorts
to march before its path and clear its way. Wisdom and
philosophy do not want to be carried on torrents of blood.
They do not march upon bloody human bodies, do not march
with human violence, but come or\ the wings of peace and love.
Like the gentle dew that falls unseen and unheard and yet
brings into blossom the fairest of roses, so has been the con-
tribution oflndia to the thought of the world 1 am an

imaginative man and my idea is the conquest of the whole
world by the Hindu race “.

Ramakrishna’s and Vivekananda’s work is being continued
by the Ramakrishna Asrams scattered all over the world and
by philosophical journals like the Prabuddha Bharata and the
Vedanta Kesari.

In this connection may also be mentioned the first editor
of the Prabuddha Bharata, the late B.JR. JRajam_Aiyar, whose
death at the tender age of twenty-six was no mean loss to
Indian letters. His varied contributions to the Prabuddha
Bharata are now collected and published in one volume of
about seven hundred pages with the excellent title, Rumbles in
Vedanta. If one wants to leam philosophy, especially
Vedanta philosophy, without tears, one cannot do better than


spend an hour every day with Rajam Aiyar’s Rambles in
Vedanta. Erudition, humour, wit, candour, a sense of style, a
feeling for Sanskrit,” English and Tamil poetry, all are evident
on the pages of the book. He is clever and wise enough to
trip Mr. Caldweil on his own chosen ground ; his essays on the
Gita appeal to our hearts at once ; his interpretations of sym-
bols like Nataraja and Seshasayana are both interesting and
convincing; his life : sketches of “Seekers after God” like
Nanda, Sri Alawandar, Buddha, and Ramakrishna are inspir-
ing chronicles ; and, in short, once we open Rambles in Vedanta
we shall find it very difficult to shut it it is so sincerely, beauti-
fully and fascinatingly written. And it is a book for the young
as well as for the old.

Rabindranath Tagore was primarily a poet and when he
turned a philosopher, as he did in Sadhana and Religion oj Man
(Hibbert Lectures), he gave us not merely the philosophy of
a poet but the very poetry of philosophy. He had the poet’s
genius for seizing the ‘essentials and exhibiting them in all their
significance and beauty. His Foreword to the Everymans
edition of Hindu Scriptures is hardly two pages in length, but
it succintly and memorably tells us the essence of the Vedas,
the Upanishads and the Gita. He could state the ancient Indian
ideal in but a couple of sentences :

” The ideal that India tried to realize led her best men
to the isolation of a contemplative life, and the treasures
that she gained for mankind by penetrating into the mysteries
of reality cost her dear in the sphere of worldly success. Yet,
this also was a sublime achievement it was a supreme mani-
festation of thaTTuffiian aspiration whteh knows no limit,
and which has for its object nothing less thai\ the realiza-
tion of the Infinite .”

J^gore’s_ Hibbert Lectures on the ” Religion of Man ” are
a poet’s^ripe testament. ” It gives me a great joy”, he says,


to feel in my life detachment at the idea of a mystery of a
meeting between the two (the Infinite and Man) in a creative
comradeship. I felt that I had found miy religion at last, the
Religion of Man, in which the Infinite became defined in
humanity and came close to me so as to need my love and
co-operation “. This intimate and perennial personal touch
with God is the recurring note of Tagore’s ” Religion of Man”.
He was no believer in merejiscgtisism and he exhorted Man to
be faithful to the kindred and reconcilable claims of ” Heaven
and Home “. ~~”~ ” ~


Sir S. Radhakrishnan^whp hasjieservedl^_won a worldwide
reputation as an interpreter of India’s philosophy, is among
the two or three Indo-Anglian philosophers who are perfectly
at home in the English language. He is widely read in English
and European literature and this knowledge gives a peculiar
flavour to his philosophical writings. Further, he is reputed
to be a very good student of both Western and Indian thought
and this, again, stands him in good stead when he embarks
on comparative studies in philosophy or when he tries to make
the West and the East understand and appreciate each other.
Hampton and Hibbert Lecturer, member of the British Academy,
Spalding Professor in the University of Oxford, ^Professor
Radhakrishnan is India’s cultural ambassador to the West ;
BuFlie is at the same time a leader of India and it is appro-
priate that he should be the Vice-Chancellor of the Benares
Hindu University.

Professor Radhakrishnan’s works include The Reign of
Religion in Contemporary Philosophy, The Philosophy of
Rahindranath Tagore, The Hindu View of Life, Indian
Philosophy, An Idealist View of Life, The Heart of Hindustan,
Kalki or the Future of Civilization and Eastern Religions and


Western Thought. JHjs massive two-volume survey of Indian
Philosophy jias nowjtepome a classic. We cannot refrain from
giving here the opinion of the late JMahajnaho^adhyaya _JS.
Kuppuswami Sastri : ” Professor Radhakrishnan’s volumes on
Indla^PlSiosoiphy easily surpass similar works about the same
subject in respect of form and matter, in respect of exposit-
ary brilliance and estimative tact, and in respect of textual cor-
relations and technical elucidations. .. .the gripping and liv-
ing interest of Professor Radhakrishnan’s volumes, which suc-
cessfully exhibit the course of Indian philosophical thought as
a perennial stream of progressive sweetness, and the ancient
makers and moulders of this thought, not as so many embalm-
ed corpses, but as living embodiments of philosophical in-
sight and continually suggestive forces of well-regulated reason”.

4n his more recent works, Professor Radhakrishnan is seen
to be an inspiring and reliable guide to Indian philosophy, a
constructive thinker on his own. He has not been jnaptly
compared to Cardinal Newman ; and, indeed, some of Profes-
sor Radhakrishnan’s pronouncements are prophetic in their
vision and jervour. His diagnoi of the modern world’s mani-
fold ills and his programme for reform are alike worthy of
our earnest consideration :

“We are at a gloomy moment in history. Never has the
future seemed so incalculable. With a dreary fatality the
tragedy moves on. The .world of nations seems to be like a
nursery full of perverse, bumptious, ill-tempered children, nag-
ging one another and making a display of their toys of earthly
possessions, thrilled by mere size. This is true of all coun-
tries. It is not a question of East or West, of Asia or Europe.
No intelligent Asiatic can help admiring and reverencing the
great races that live in Europe and their noble and exalted
achievements. His heart is wrung when he sees dark clouds
massing on the horizon. There is something coarse at the very


centre of our civilization by which it is betrayed again and
again. No civilization, however brilliant, can stand up against
the social resentments and class conflicts which accompany a
maladjustment of wealth, labour and leisure. Perpetual distur-
bance will be our doom if we do not recognize that the world
is one and interdependent. If we do not alter the framework
of the social system and the international order, which are
based on force and the exploitation of the inferior individuals
and backward nations, world peace will be a wild dream.
While resolved to renounce nothing, this generation wishes to
enjoy the fruits of renunciation Owing to a cross-ferti-
lization of ideas and insights, behind which lie centuries of
racial and cultural tradition and earnest endeavour, a great
unification is taking place in the fabricjrf men’s thoughts”.

Professor Radhakrishnan’s central interest has always been
“the practical bearing of philosophy on life”; and it is to
his credit that he has given Indian Philosophy the place it
deserves in the entire scheme of modern thought.

Besides Professor Radhakrishnan, other Indian professors
of philosophy or Sanskrit also have given us reliable and read-
able surveys of Indian Philosophy or studies of particular aspects
of the same. Dr. Surendranath D^isgupta gives abundant proof
of his oceanic scholarship and Himalayan industry in the three
monumental volumes of his history of Indian Philosophy while
Professor M. Hiriyanna’s shorter survey of the subject is,
perhaps, the best one-volume study now available in English.

JPtof^R N. Srinivasachari, a very good scholar and a
writer with an adequate command of the English language, has
published a number of books that seek to interpret Vedanta
philosophy from the Visishtadvaita standpoint. His magnum
opus is the recently published treatise, The Philosophy of
Visishtadvaita ; his other works include Ramanujtis Idea of
the infinite Self, Philosophy of Bhedabheda, Studies in Vedante,


The Philosophy of the Beautiful and The Ethical Philosophy of
the Gita.

A few more names should close this section : Prof. R..B-
Ranade’s classic, A Constructive Survey of Upanishadic Philo-
sophy, Di^Mahendranath Sjrcar’s Hindu Mysticism and
Eastern Lights, Babu Bhagawan Das’s Hindu Ethics, _Sir Rus-
turn ^^n\^^Jie_Religion of .the Good Life, D. M. Datta’s
Six Ways of Knowing, and Sir C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar’s World


JTJie..most original and outstanding of the Indo- Anglian
philosophers is, however, Sri Aurobindo v Ghose. We have al-
ready discussed his poetry in a previous chapter and have also
referred to his prose writings and contributions to literary criti-
cism. But to-day he is known to the civilized world principally
as a philosopher and yogi. His great treatise, The Life Divine,
which appeared serially in the Arya about twenty years ago
has been recently published in book form and has been acc-
laimed by Sir Francis Younghusband as the greatest book
produced in our time. Sri Aurobindo’s other books on
philosophy and Yoga include The Synthesis of Yoga, The
Essays on the Gita, The Mother, The Riddle of This World,
The Secret of the Veda and the commentary on Isha Upanishad.

The Life Divine, a massive treatise of about fifteen hun-,
jdred jpages, is, _among text-books on Metaphysics, the book
par excellence. Members of different faiths, partisans of dif-
ferent schools of philosophy, admirers of different world-figures
like Plato, Hegel, St. Thomas Aquinas, Sankara, Ramanuja,
all seem to find in The Life Divine a solution of some of their
most obstreperous difficulties. It has therefore been not inaptly
described by Dr. S. K. Maitra of the Benares Hindu University


as the last arch in the ” bridge of thoughts and sights which
spans the history of Aryan culture”.

Sri^Aurobindo’s Essays on the Gita. is ,.ano^r_imjportant
contribution to philosophical literature. The Gita has been
commented upon so frequently, so voluminously, from so many
viewpoints, commented upon again so brilliantly and sojelte
quently and so^persuasiyely, that it is astonishing that Sri Auro-
bindo should nevertheless have succeeded irTmaking his thou-
sand-page treatise not a whit superfluous, not a whit second-
hand or disagreeably obvious, but rather a radiant re-evocation
of the philosophia perennis embodied in the Lord’s Song.

The Synthesis of Yoga and The Secret of the Veda, massive
sequences both, are not available in book form. Philosopher
or Yogi, Sri Aurobindo is the prophet of the Life Divine, essen-
tially a creative spirit. His message can be summarized thus
in the words of Dr. Mahendranath Sircar :

” The philosophy of Aurobindo utilizes the Divine Shakti
to the utmost and establishes a race on earth which will make
it full of supramental wisdom and supramental power. This
new race a race free from all conventions of life will carry
with it Peace, Power and Plenty. This is the promise of
his philosophy”.

It is clear, then, that Sri Aurobindo’s message is addressed to
the West no less than to the East, and he is truly the Prophet
of To-day and To-morrow.



Although the printing press had been introduced into India

about the middle of the eighteenth century (in the sixties, to

“EeTprecise),jthe first “native” newspaper was started only in

1818. Anglo-Indian journalists had already done considerable


spade-work, and now men like Raja Rammohan Roy came
forward to lend their support to indigenous journalism. The
abolition, in 1833, of the much abused system of licenses and
other restrictions helped the press to breathe a healthy air and
” native ” journalism was now well under way.

And yet all was not well with Indian journalism. Most
Indian newspapers led a hand-to-mouth existence, lacking
funds, lacking readers, lacking competent staffs. The institution^
of the first Indian universities in 1857 led to the gradual
spread 6T education ; and the next two or three decades saw
ffie emergence of a new class the ” educated ” class of readers
who were eager to read and occasionally even to write to
these newspapers. JTowards the close of the nineteenth century,
there were in all 647 periodicals in Bengal, 200 in Bombay and
ill in Madras.

As is only to be expected, the vernacular newspapers are
far more numerous than the English ones ; but Indians have
shown and are showing distinctive ability in English journa-
lism. Mr. G. T. Garrett points out in The Legacy of India :

11 In considering the Indian writers in English a tribute
must be paid to the extraordinary brilliance with which cer-
tain Indian races overcome linguistic difficulties. Bengalis,
Chitpavan and Kashmiri Brahmins, Madrassis, and Parsis
have produced a succession of capable journalists and publi-
cists, who have served the nationalist cause by writing clear
and trenchant English prose Tilak, Gokhale, Aurobindo
Ghose, Ranade, Surendranath Bannerjee, R. C. Dutt, N. C.
Kelkar, Phirozshah Mehta, and a host of other writers have
shown that Indian English can develop into a powerful
weapon of attack”.

No Indian can, after all, feel really at home in an alien language
like English ; but the Indo-Anglian journalists of about fifty


years ago looked upon English as an unescapable and necessary
evil, and many of them made a virtue^ of this necessity. As
J?abu Sambhunath Mukherji, himself a pioneer in Indo-Anglian
journalism, explained in the course of a letter to Mr. Meredith
Townshend :

” We might have created one of the finest literatures in
the world without making any impression in the camp of
our British rulers and of course without advancing our poli-
tical or even social status. Nay, the truth is we have created
a literature and a very respectable literature it is. All that
copiousness and all that wealth, however, has not helped
us one whit or rescued us from degradation. Hence we are
compelled to journalism and authorship in a foreign tongue,
to make English a kind of second vernacular to us, if possible

we, who write in English, have to make this sacrifice

for the fatherland “.

The aim of the Indo-Anglian journalist is generally two-
fold : firstly, to make an appeal to the Indian intelligentsia
and, secondly, to interpret India’s aspirations and to voice forth
her grievances for the enlightenment of the Britisher. The best
of the Indo-Anglian journalists have always played this dual
role with ^consummate tact and surprising ability. Since the
arrival of Mahatma Gandhi on the Indian political scene twenty-
five years ago, vernacular journalism has also made great strides
and the number of vernacular journals has increased and is
increasing at a welcome rate ; but the vogue for Indo-Anglian
journalism has shown no signs of decline either !

The early Indo-Anglian journalists had necessarily to be
all-rounders in public life politicians, editors, lawyers, teachers,
litterateurs, often all at once ! They were generally cast on a
heroic mould, they were very Titans. The mere names tell a
Titanic tale : Rammohan Roy and Harish Chandra Mukherji,
Kristo Das Pal and Sambhunath Mukherji, Motilal Ghose and


Narendranath Sen, Subramania Aiyer and Sankaran Nair,
Vijiaraghavachari and Kasturiranga lyengar, Karunakara
Menon and K. Natarajan, Dadabhai Naoroji and Behramji
Malabari, Mahadev Ranade and Narayan Chandavarkar, Lok-
manya Tilak and Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Pandit Bishen Nara-
yen and Ganga Prasad Verma. Writing of these and their
contemporaries, Mr. N. C. Kelkar, himself a very distinguished
Marathi and Indo- Anglian journalist, remarked over forty years
ago : ” This is a galaxy of journalists who have by their bril-
liance shed a light of glory upon their country and who, under
more favourable conditions of political life, would certainly
have come up to a higher level as publicists than they at
present occupy “.

Thanks to the endeavours of some of these great journalists
and their successors, we have to-day a number of first-rate
Indian-owned and Indian-managed English newspapers and
periodicals in the country, which are quite as good as their
Anglo-Indian contemporaries. The Amrita Bazar Patrika of
Calcutta, the Hindu of Madras, the Bombay Chronicle, the
Leader of Allahabad, the ^Tribune of Lahore, and, among week-
ly and monthly journals, the Modern Review, the Hindustan
Review, the Irtdian Review, the Artyan Path, the Indian Social
Reformer, the Mahratta, the Twentieth Century, and the New
Review, all are doing very meritorious work in their respective
fields or areas.

In India, editors have almost as a rule been also front-
rank politicians ; and often politicians have turned to journalism
in order to propagate their particular jsospejis- Among these
journalist-politicians of the past two or three decades, we may
mention Mahatma Gandhi of Young India and Harijan, Lala
Lajpat Rai of the People, Maulana Muhammad Ali of Com-
rade, T. Prakasan of Swarajya, C. R. Das of the Forward,
Subhas Chandra Bose of the Forward Bloc, M. N. Roy of


the Independent India, K. M. Munshi of the Social Welfare*
and Pattabhi Sitaramayya of the fanmabhumi ; some of these
papers are now defunct, but they had a tremendous vogue at
one time.

On the other hand, the late Ramananda Chatterjee and
Sir C. Y. Chintamani, Pothan Joseph and K. Natarajan, Syed
Abdulla Brelvi and A. D. Mani, K. Iswara Dutt and S. Nata-
rajan are journalists first and politicians (if at all) only after-
wards. Ramananda Chatterjee made the Modern Review
unquestionably the most important and weighty monthly journal
in India, and one of the best anywhere ; the late Sir C. Y.
Chintamani, migrating from Andhra Desha to Allahabad, made
the Leader a power in North India. Pothan Joseph has been
moving from place to place and was lately the editor of
the Dawn, the organ of the Muslim League, but his editorials
are as trenchant as ever and his ” Over a Cup of Tea ” continues
to delight thousands of readers all over India ; the Natarajans,
father and son, have made the Indian Social Reformer their
life vocation, although the father once created a diversion by
occupying for a while the editorial sanctum of the Indian Daily
Mail ; Brelvi of the Bombay Chronicle is a Nationalist Muslim
in politics and is one of the most competent Indo-Anglian
journalists of the day ; A. D. Mani started as a free-lance in
Madras, but he is now the editor of the Hitavada of Nagpur ;
and Iswara Dutt, formerly of the Leader, is the founder-editor
of the Twentieth Century, but for a few months he edited
also that excellent journal, the Week-End.


Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha is a class by himself. A veteran
publicist, a versatile scholar, a distinguished member of the
bar, a former Executive Councillor, till lately Vice-Chancellor


of the Patna University, Dr. Sinha has also edited for a period
of forty years the Hindustan Review, a monthly journal with
a long and meritorious record of public service. Dr. Sinha
shares with the great Victorians a toughness of fibre and the
stamina for sustained and purposeful endeavour ; he has played
the roles of lawyer, legislator, executive councillor, social refor-
mer, educationist and humanist with earnestness, integrity and
conspicuous ability ; and he has all along known the ” import-
ance of being earnest.” Dr. Sinha’s editorials, book- reviews,* and
other contributions reveal hisj^rsatility of approach and his
astonishing scholarship. He has faith, he believes in himself
and in the world, he believes in work and in relaxation, in
beauty and in the stern realities of life. He is equally interested
in the poetry of Sir Mahomed Iqbal, the personality of Deva-
mitta Dharmapala, the satires of John Dryden, and in the
beauties of Kashmir. Several of his important contributions to
the Hindustan Review are included in the recently published
A Selection from the Speeches and Writings of Sachchidananda
Sinha and deserve to be read with care.

The late Nagendranath Gupta was another outstanding
journalist who was at home as much in literature as in politics ;
and some of his most characteristic work is included in The
Place of Man and Other Essays. St. NihaJ _Singb is a free-
lance of genius and his career has been a long and very distin-
guished one. Mr. K. Ramakotiswara Rau has made his Tri-
veni a respectedTugh^class journal devoted to the interpreta-
tion of the main currents in India’s cultural life. The PrabuA-
dha Bharata and The Vedanta Kesari are both devoted to
philosophy and are conducted efficiently by the Swamis of the
Ramakrishna Asram. Of late, the Indo-Anglians are also pro-
ducing popular journals devoted to the worlds of sport, cinema,
finance, and what not. Columnists too are now in evidence
“here and there, and some of them “Dim” of the Bombay


Chronicle and ” Little Man ” of the Bombay Sentinel are very
good indeed.

No doubt, as Mr. Garrett has pointed out, ” polemical writ-
ing can only with great difficulty reach the level of literature,
and very little is likely to survive from the vast mass of politi-
cal and economic articles and books which have been produced
in India during the last half-century ” ; but this is true, not
only of Indo-Anglian, but of any living literature. A journalist
is required to live for the moment and to assume a sort of
omniscience ; and the journalists of an earlier generation and
even many journalists to-day are compelled to battle against a
variety of adverse circumstances like poor pay, insecurity of
tenure, the frowns of the powers that be, and the uncertain
conditions engendered by civil disobedience movements and
consequent repressive acts on the part of the Government. And
yet the Indo-Anglian journalists have bravely carried on through
fair weather and foul, and hence they are entitled to the
gratitude of their countrymen.

One^of the greatest of Indo-Anglian journalists, Aurobindo
Ghose contributed^ a series of articles to the Tiidu PraHosh
when he was hardly twenty-one or twenty-two ; these were
sparklingly original and scintillated with brilliance. Later on
he became the editor of the Bandemataram during the ” anti-
partition ” days ; he soon made the paper a power in the
country. The paper especially the ” Weekly Bandemataram ”
found its way to every patriotic home and millions respond-
ed to the gospel of nationalism propagated by the paper. Wit
and sarcasm, logic and scholarship, humour and irony, poetry
and eloquence, all came handy to Sri Aurobindo, and hence
‘some at least of his contributions to the Bandemataram deserve
to rank as literature. Subsequently he also edited the Karma-
yogin and the Arya ; IrT these Sri Aurobindo is no journalist
3T7atheFT^rophei “and”, in the Arya, a philosopher and a



yogi. Many of the Kavmayogin and Arya articles and se-
quences have been reprinted in book form and they prove that
Sri Aurobindo is a master of eloquent, persuasive and beautiful

Few Indian newspapers publish satisfactory “Literary
Pages ” ; we have likewise hardly any really satisfying week-
end newspapers like the London Observer or Sunday Times ;
nor have we any Punch or even Tit Bits ; but let us be thank-
ful for what the Indo-Anglian journalists have already given
us, for they have truly given us the best that they could give.
It is for others of the present generation to go one better if
they can.


As for Indo-Anglian lawyers and jurists, their name is
legion ; but a few stand out head and shoulders above the
crowd. We can merely mention the names of eminent Indian
judges like SbJT^ Muthusami Ayyar, Dwaraknath Mitter.
Mahadev Govind Ranade, Sir Subramania Ayyar, Sir V.
Bhashyam lyengar, Syed Ameer Ali, Syed Mahmood, Sir
Ashutosh Mukherji, Sir Narayan Chandavarkar, Sir Shah
Sulaiman, V. Krishnaswami Iyer, and Dinshah F. Mulla ; and,
among those still with us, Sir Abdur RahinvSir S. t Varada-
chariar, and M. R. Jayakar come readily to one’s mind. Indian
judges have filled with distinction the highest places and some
like Sir Subramania Ayyar and Sir Shadi Lai have shed lustre
on the office of Chief Justiceship itself while Jayakar, Ameer
Ali, Mulla, Shah Sulaiman and Varadachariar have earned a
great reputation either as members of the Judicial Committee
of the Privy Council or as ‘Judges of the Indian Supreme Cburt.

The present writer is not competent to pronounce an
opinion on the work of the Indian judges ; but the considered
opinion of Sir Brojendra Mitten sometime Law Member of


the Government of India and later its Advocate-General, is
most enlightening :

” By learning, knowledge of the feelings and habits of
the people, independence and integrity, Indian judges have
maintained the- highest traditions of justice. Their greatest
achievement has naturally been in the realm of the personal
law of the Indians. They have illumined the obscure, eluci-
dated cardinal principles, reconciled differences and helped
IrTtTie progressive growth of ancient laws through enlighten-
ed interpretation. At a time when few of the old texts were
available to the uninitiated through translations, they ex-
plored original sources and brought to light the structure and
organization of the different systems of law which governed
the divers communities of India. Their service to juris-
prudence has been of great value.”

And Mr. Whitly Stokes, in his general introduction to the
Anglo-Indian Cedes, has given special praise to the judgments
of Muthusami Ayyar and Syed Mahmood and has concluded
his appreciation with the significant remark : ” For the subtle
races that produce such lawyers no legal doctrine can be too
refined, no legal machinery can be too elaborate.”

Apart from the treasures of legal wisdom contained in the
weighty judgments of these eminent jurists, these judgments
at any rate the best among themare also interesting to the
historian of Indo-Anglian literature. The ” decisions ” are
invariably preceded by elaborate historical, sociological, politi-
cal or even philosophical discussions and sometimes these are
couched in more than mere workmanlike style. Judges are no
doubt sometimes long-winded, confused, or simply dull ; but
the great judge invariably raises even the discussion of knotty
points of law to the level of literature.

Some eminent lawyers have also given us legal treatises on
the different branches of the law. Legal luminaries like DinsEaE


Mulla and Hari Singh Gour have published valuable legal
books that are deemed indispensable to the lawyer and the
judge ; S. Srinivasa lyengar’s new edition of Mayne’s classic
exposition of Hindu Law is itself a classic ; and the lectures
given under the Tagore Law Foundation are often of a very
high quality ; all these give abundant proof of creative acti-
vity on the part of Indo-Anglian lawyers and jurists.



Many of the journalist-politicians mentioned in the pre
vious chapter have also been effective speakers. Indeed, since”
the last quarter of the nineteenth century, India has produced
a large number of eloquent and brilliant orators, who have
usejl the English tongue with astonishing ease arfd dexterity.
^ Among the orators of a generation or two ago, Dadabhai
Naoroji, W. C. Bonnerjee, Phirozeshah Mehta, Rash Behari
Ghose, Bepin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala
Lajpat Rai, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Motilal Nehru, San-
karan Nair, V. Krishnaswami Iyer and men of like calibre
made the English language their own and elaborated their
arguments with all the arts of the Victorian orators. J Many
of them presided over the deliberations of one or more sessions
of the Indian National Congress; and the presidential and
other addresses delivered in the Congress constitute an inspir-
ing store-house of Indo-Anglian oratory.

The late C. R. Das was a great orator. His forensic elo-
quence gained the admiration of the bench and the bar alike.
When he plunged into politics, his moving voice and stirring
words were heard from many a Congress and Swarajist plat-
form. His presidential address at the Gaya Congress ^and his


Faridpore Speech are justly famous. The following is the pero-
ration of his Gaya Presidential Address :

“Be it yours to wage a spiritual warfare so that the
victory, when it comes, does not debase you, nor tempt you.
to retain the power of government in your own hands. But
if yours is to be a spiritual warfare, your weapons must be.
those of the spiritual soldier. Anger is not for you, hatred is
not for you ; nor for you is pettiness, meanness or false-
hood. For you is the hope onEwiTand the confidence of
the morning, and for you is the song that was sung of ^Titan,
chained and imprisoned but the champion of man, in the
Greek fable :

To suffer woes which Hope thinks infinite :
To forgive wrongs darker than death or night ;
To defy Power, which seems omnipotent ;
To love, and bear ; to hope till Hope creates
From its own wreck the thing it contemplates ;
Neither to change, nor talter, nor repent ;
This, like thy glory, Titan, is to be
Good, great and joyous, beautiful and free ;
This is alone Life, Joy, Empire and Victory.”

This was the peroration of a formal address ; but Chittaran-
jan’s extempore speeches were equally sustained by his head no
less than by his heart, and he was ever a careering Achilles on
the public or council platform.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Srinivasa Sastri are in a class
apart : Gokhale, ” calm, unagitated, never seeking to adorn his
style, bu^ overwhelming his opponents by an array of figures
and a wealth of information, patiently collected”, and Srini-
vasa Sastri, ” honey-tongued, the very embodiment of sweet
resa^riablene^^ rtefity modulated words flow

in rounded periods” ; Gokhale and Sastri, master and pupil,
humanists and teachers both, who tried to conduct politics


without rancour and who have given their countrynien the
ideals of unselfish service and enlightened patriotism !
Gokhale’s ” Farewell to Fergusson College ” is a jndlgjy and
beautiful piece of eloquence and the orator here wears his
heart upon his sleeve ; but Gokhale was always whatever the
occasion a persuasive and thoughtful speaker. ” The style is
the man “-and the man fully revealed himself in his public

Srinivasa Sastri has been rightly described by the Encyclo-
paedia Britannica^> “the greatest Indian orator of his day”.
His lectures on the Life of Gokhale and on the Rights and
Duties of Indian Citizens are couched in a language of disarm-
ing simplicity and purity. His major addresses in India and
abroad are models of Jimpid and moving eloquence. Unruffled
and self-possessed, Srinivasa Sastri develops his themes rather
like an artist ; the exordium is quiet but confident, the struc-
ture of argument isTclose but never dull or tough, and the
peroration is convincing and effective but not loud or flamboy-
antX front-line statesman of India and the Empire, Sastri
Is’af his best when he Jftrives to reach the height of a political
argument, but as a specimen of his mature oratorial style we
prefer to extract the following paragraph from his address on
” Birthright ” :

* “With the din of a disastrous war all round and the
threatened crash of most human values, it is not wholly idle,
nay, it is* the compulsion of our angujsh, to desire that the
improvements we cherish should be acquired by methods of
peace, understanding and mutual adjustment. The path of
human progress need not be marked for ever by blood and.
wreckage. The way of war, though it be social or civil war,
“is notfthe way we should tread for the attainment of even
our highest aims. I don’t avow myself an extreme pacifist
or a thorough-going votary of non-violence. But I am far


on the road. Like the Mahatma I believe that force will
never end force, that what is won by force is apt to be
lost by force and that that alone will be a lasting gain to
our race which we secure by ways of peace, by ways of har-
mony and by ways of mutual help and mutual love.”


The Gandhi era in politics has thrown up a number of
orators, in English noTess tRari In” the various regional langu-
liges, especially in Hindi. Mahatmaji generally prefers to speak
in Hindi or Gujarati ; but when he does speak in English, he
is a master of the spoken word. He speaks in an even voice ;
the words come naturally, effortlessly, and the magic of his
personality invests even his casual utterances with a prophetic
fervour and intensity. His historic ” defence ” at his trial in
1922 is one of the peaks of his effortless eloquence. By that
memorable speech Mahatma Gandhi shunted (to quote Mr.
N. C. Kelkar) ” the train of the trial from the track of vulgar
terror to that of refined sublimity “. We shall, however, ex-
tract here a passage from the~~equally famous “Sermon on
God ” in which Mahatmaji is truly seen to be a godly man who
is ever in search of God :

“There js an indefinable mysterious Power that per-
vades everything. I feel it, though I do not see it. It Is”
this unseen power which makes itself felt and that defies all
proof because it is so unlike all that I perceive through my
senses. It transcends the senses because it is possible to reason
out the existence of God only to a limited extent. . . . God,
to be God, must rule the heart and transform it. He must
express Himself in every smallest act of Hisjyotary. This
can be done only through a definite realization more real
than the five senses can ever produce. … I know, too, that
I shall never know God if I do not wrestle with and against
evil even at the cost of life itself, I amjfortified in this


belief by my own humble and limited experience. The purer
I try to become, the nearer to God I feel myself to be. How
much more should I be near to Him when my faith is not
a mere apology as it is to-day, but has become as immovable
as the Himalayas and as white as the snows on their peaks.”
There are literally hundreds of speeches in which Mahatmaji,
by scorning the arts of the mere rhetorician, scores again and
again ; he is never at a loss for the precise and yet familiar
word, and it is out the thin, dry twigs of everyday speech that
he ignites with such artless art the fire of his moving and sway-
ing eloquence.

The late Pandit Motilal Nehru was an orator of eminence
and many of his speeches on the floor of the Legislative As-
sembly for instance, his speeches on the Public Safety Bill
and on the resolution advocating boycott of the Simon Com-
mission were finished rhetorical improvisations, in which
humour and sarcasm, logic and learning, pride and patriotism,
all were thrown together to fuse into first-rate eloquence. His
Congress presidential and other addresses were no less inspir-
ing and colourful. Motilal had often to cross swords with
Mr. Jinnah on the floor of the Legislative Assembly and their
duels were in the nature of the clash between flint and steel ;
m those occasions Roman met Roman indeed, MotilaTs epi-
jratns and Jinnah’s repartees were of the blitzkrieg pattemranff
thrilled and awed the benches and the galleries ; the tense and
sxotic atmosphere of the Assembly became more tense and
*xotic during those jneredible moments and verbal missiles whiz-
zed past the astonished spectators, not seldom pregnant with
ightning and thunder. “*”””

As for^ Mr. M. A. Jinnah, he has been a fighter and
speaker all his life. He has been literally a roaring antf “com-
bative power in the law courts, legislative assemblies, and,
more recently, on the platform of the Muslim League.


tuous and emotional, he could jjway audiences and rouse them
to a frenzy of shouting and waving of hands ; with ready wit,
smashing invective and convincing logic, he could turn the
trend of debate in any direction he likes ; he could negotiate,
make compromises if possible, ^haggle interminably if necessary,
and thus ever play his cards with the consummate ability of
a master. Speech with Mr. Jinnah is the very oxygen of bis
political success. It is in his incredible orations that the whole
man demagogue and patriot and lawyer and prophet of
Pakistan is fully revealed, dazzling us with his cocksure-
nesses, kindling his listeners to action, painting his Utopias in
vague yet fascinating colours. Like Motilal, Jinnah too can
be a stern debater if he wants, and can always make a point
with terrible force.

Like Mr. Jinnah and Pandit Motilal, the late S. Srinivasa
lyengar also was a leading lawyer-politician and was a con-
spicuous figure in the third Legislative Assembly. _He Jwas
Pandit MotilalV ” deputy ” in the Swarajya Party, but he
always spoke with the authority of a super-subtle constitution-
al lawyer and the fervour and emotional intensity of a true
and fearless patriot. Jljs^oratory was intellectual rather than
graceful, torrential rather than flowing ; his sentences were*
often short, and jwithx and ^grammatical, but he too could
hit back with vigour and accuracy if the need arose. Some of
his speeches in the Assembly, his Congress presidential speech
and other formal addresses, many of his public speeches dur-
ing the last two years of his life, all show Srinivasa lyengar’s
quick and forceful thinking, his severely beautiful logic, his
fervent idealism and patriotism, and his irranitij^ble and
lovable Humanity. We extract here this small passage ,on the
strength of true Faith :

” Let us not forgiet, in the fever of political controversy,
that the strength of each religion is derived from God and


is rooted in the souls of Prahladas). Not all the tortures
of Torquemada nor all the burning at the stakes nor all
other forms of persecution have been able to destroy the
mystic quality of the human soul. Neither Hinduism nor
Islam derives or requires strength either from the present
or from any future government. Both stand far, far above
– Swaraj, which is not comparable to them. Neither foreign
governments nor self-governments, neither democracies nor
autocracies, can destroy that seed of faith which is in every
one of us, that inspired interpretation of the Universe to
which one clings for guidance and solace in this world and
for salvation in the next”.


N The third Legislative Assembly (1927-1930) heard also
the speeches of veteran orators like Malaviya and Lajpat Rai,
Kdkar and Jayakar ; there were also younger men like
Shunmukham Chetty and Goswami. The fourth Legislative
Assembly brought to prominence Bhulabhai Desai and S.
Satyamurti, Cowasji Jehangir and Govind Vallabh Pant, C. P.
Ramaswami Aiyar and A. Ramaswami Mudaliar, all orators
of distinction for one or more commendable qualities.


Under the Constitution of 1935, the provincial Legislative
Assemblies started working and many more parliamentarians
found their vocation. Both within the Madras Legislature and
on Congress platforms, Mr. C. Rajagopalachari’s dialectical
brilliance has tantalized audiences many a time ; and atHhis
best, RajagopalacharTor “Rajaji’ (as he is universally called)
is a very good sipeaker indeed, forbiddingly unruffled, quite
sure of himself, equipped always with an inexhaustible armoury
of parables that tnore often than not unerringly hit the bull’s
ye~to the discomfiture of his detractors.


Like Rajaji, many of the Congress front-rank leaders are
also very good orators when they choose to be. Rajendra
Prasad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Sarojini
Naidu, Vallabhbhai Patel, all can deliver the goods without
the loss of ” one poor jcruple ” ; but sometimes they are con-
tent to be merely jemphatic and bold, scorning the graces “of
restraint, reasonableness and humour, and pinning their faith
on the strength of a party majority rather than on the granite
strength of persuasion and argument. Only Sarojini Naidu
never fails as a platform-speaker. Be the theme ever so obvi-
ous, be her assertions ever so stale and emphatic, yet is she
enough of a poet even in her most prosaic moments to make
the trite appear to be a thing of wonder and wild surmise, to
make human and patriotic hearts beat in response t# her
thnUigg words and ^insinuating perorations. Her mere presence
is sufficient to redeem the proceedings of even the dullest con-
ference imaginable !

In one sense, however, modern oratory is on a lower level
than the oratory of yesterday and of the day before ; and this
is, perhaps, as true of Britain and other countries as of India.
To-day audiences cannot sit through a four-hour speech,
whether it is delivered by a Gladstone or a Disraeli or by a
Malaviya or a Muhammad Ali ; we have no patience to listen
to the sermons of a Vivekananda or of a Ram Tilth ; we want
si^eechi^and even the newspaper reports of speeches in a
tabloid form. Moreover, audiences to-day are far-flung and
“vastly” bigger ; and all sorts of people now-a-days lush to
listen to public sipeeches. As a result, the modern orator-
be he a Roosevelt or a Churchill or a Jinnah or a Jawaharlal
has to take care that he does not talk above the heads of his
audience. Things have to be put briefly and simply ; there
is no room for stylistic elaborations and feats of sheer argu-
mentation ; there is no room either for recondite quotations


from four or five languages, for crescendoes and diminuend-
oes, for carefully prepared effects and perorations ! Modern
oratory, on the face of it, is a somewhat ” democratic ” and
tame affair.

Even so, the modern orator somehow holds his own.
Neither the loudspeaker nor the radio has quite discomfited
him ; rather has he turned these very circumstances of his
limitation to his own profit. Preseot-day Indian orators
like a C. R. Reddy, a Jayakar, a Radhakrishnan, a Jinnah, a
Rajagopalachari, -a Jawaharlal Nehru and others have learned
the art of swaying the heartsi of thousands or even millions
of their countrymen. A loud voice is not necessary to-day ;
menacing gestures are actually out of place; clear articula-
BoETand a command over the resources of language* are the
pSmary requisites; and, above all, an alert mental forge at
work ; and our great Indo-Anglian orators possess them all.


For the rest, the Indo-Anglians may be said to have at-
tempted all kinds of useful literature and to have attempted
them with success. Of writers on education, we can men-
tion many names, beginning with Rammohan Roy and (for
the time ‘ being) ending with T. N, Siqueira ; we have also
good educational journals like the Educational Review and
Teaching. Every year, educationists and others are invited
to deliver the convocation addresses in the universities or to
preside over the various educational conferences organized all
over India ; the addresses are uneven and often of poor
quality, but now and then a C. R. Reddy or a Radhakrishnan
or a C. V. Raman or a Tej Bahadur Sapru or an Amaranatha
Jha or a Mirza Ismail strikes a new or unexpected note, and
a formal address acquires the dignity of literature. But such


memorable pronouncements are no more than the splendid ex-
ceptions that prove the rule of unesoapable m^iocritj^

Of writers on political and constitutional subjects, we
may mention Tej Bahadur Sapru, P. S. Sivaswami Aiyar, K.
M. Panikkar, N. D. Varadachari, A. Rangaswami lyengarand
Dr. Zacharias ; Mr. M. Ruthnaswami’s The Making of the
State is a creditable contribution to the subject ; S. Srinivasa
lyengar’s Problems of Democracy in India and Stalemate and
Reorganization are the stimulating essays of a constructive
statesman ; Shelvankar’s Ends are Means is an effective reply
to Aldous Huxley’s Ends and Means ; and Dr. Ambedkar’s
Thoughts on Pakistan is a conscientious and thorough piece of

Likewise, economists like Benoy Kumar Sarkar and
JRadhakamal Mukherji, K. T. Shah and P. A. Wadia ; scien-
tists like J. C. Bose, P. C. Ray, and C. V. Raman ; writers
like H. L. Kaji and Minoo Masani who have made even
Geography a fascinating subject ; all have successfully bent
the apparently intractable English language to their own use.
An address by J, C. Bose or by C. V. Raman is a veritable
treat, not only because of the highly specialized knowledge it
attempts to popularize, but also because of its sense of form
and literary race. And Minoo Masani’s Our India has de-
servedly become a best-seller and a children’s favourite.

We have few Indo-Anglian writers who, like a Belloc or
an E. V. Lucas, attempt to delineate the treasures of sight and
sound in our variegated country. Mr. A. S. Wadia gave us
some years ago a very good book on Kashmir ; and Dr. Sachchi-
dananda Sinha, now full of honour and years, has just publish-
ed a sumptuous volume of five hundred pages entitled, Kashmir:
the Play-Ground ofi Asia. You may call it an anthology of
choice verses culled from many writers ; or a punctiliously pre-
cise guide-book ; or a temperamental description of the


beauties and bounties of Kashmir ; or an authoritative mono-
graph on Kashmiri politic^ and social life ; or an up-to-date
descriptive bibliography of the literature on Kashmir. Well,
it is all these things, but it is also something that transcends
these particular descriptions ; it is, in fact, an v act of jadora-
tion L an inspiring homage to the ” Land of Lalla Rookh ”



We have now come to the end of our survey -a partial
and personal survey, if you will of the varied contributions
of Indians to English literature. JFor nearly one hundred years
Indians have tried to achieve self-expression through the
medium of English and they haveV again and again, triumphed
over its seeming intractability and produced poems, novels,
essays, learned treatises, memoir* and monographs hardly dis-
tinguishable from similar productions of authentic English
writers. In Professor E. E. Speight’s words, the tnany Indians
men and women who have written in English stand “as
symbols of a power of adaptation which is so much more as-
tonishing because it comes from a people who in other ways
are so conservative “.

There is no need either to be very proud of our achieve-
ments in the domain of Indo- Anglian literature or to be foolish-
ly ashamed of them. That Indians were obliged to study
English was an unpleasant necessity ; and Indians, be it said
to their credit, have made a virtue of that necessity. If the
study of English has weakened our love for our respective
mother tongues, the fault, dear Brutus, is not with English
but in ourselves. English occupied and still occupies a domi-


nant position in the curriculum, not because it is the language
of our rulers, but because it has successfully functioned as a
link between the different linguistic areas in India and between
India and .the rest of the civilized world.

On the other hand, our vernacular literatures have them-
selves greatly benefited by their living contact with English
literature and this cross-fertilization has helped to usher in a
new Indian renaissance. One is not a slave simply because
one likes a foreign language in addition to one’s own ; and one
may be an adept in Tamil or Hindi and yet be a slave of
slaves. We can easily make and we often do makea fetish
of our sentimental objection to the English language and litera-
ture. As Dr. M. R. Jayakar once pointed out :

” It will be a mistake to allow your political dislike of
British rule to come in the way of your studying English
literature with appreciation and good will. You will never
make any progress, if your attitude is one of hatred, con-
tempt or abhorrence for the culture of the people whose
literature you are studying. You have to get over youi
political dislikes, if any, and concentrate your mind upon
the beauty of the literature you read. When in the field
of literature you are not a politician and have no political
or social antipathies”.

These words were originally addressed to a group of c )llege
students, but they have a message for us all.

Let us by all means cultivate our own mother tongues,
enrich our own indi^nous literatures, and make the rest of
the world respect them and ever* get intimately acquainted with
them ; but there is no sense in putting the clock back and
banishing the English language from our midst. It is certainly
desirable that our mother tongues should become
the media of instruction even at the university stages : and
when this desire is realized, as it must be sooner or later,


English will automatically cease to have the importance it
enjoys to-day. But it must continue to have an important
place in the curriculum. In the words of Professor Atnaranatha
Jha, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Allahabad :

” English should continue to be a second language.

It is the international language now. It has been and can
continue to be the source of delight and inspiration. It
enables us to live close to some great minds. There need
be no antagonism between English and our own languages.
We shall develop our literatures, but we shall continue to
get all the help we can to set back the frontiers of darkness,
to listen and speak so that humanity may go on re-creat-
ing itself”.


While some critics condemn the Indo-Anglians because
they are supposed to be symbols of our slavery, others point
out that most of the productions of the Indo-Anglians are
poor in quality and from this jump to the conclusion that
Indians should not attempt self-expression in English.

So long as human nature is what it is, second-rate and
third-rate and nth rate writers there must be in England and
in America, and not only in India. Hundreds of writers are
mfentioned in the bibliographies of English literature, and yet
how many of them are really read to-day? How many of
the ” masterpieces ” announced to-day in the literary journals
are likely to escape oblivion a decade hence ?

Moreover, it is wrong to assume that an Indian who
writes bad English verse is sure somehow to write first-rate
Tamil or Bengali or Kannada poetry. True poetry springs
from within ; and if only darkness or chaos or mere chafLin-
habits the writer’s mind and soul, he can no more achieve
glorious self-expression in his mother tongue than in an alien


language. Other things remaining the same, one’s own mother
tongue should come more naturally to one than an alien
language like English ; and, as a matter of fact, in the future
as in the past most Indians will write only in their own mother
tongues. But some will still woo English, fully aware of the
perils confronting their paths; it is not for us to condemn
them purely on a priori grounds. Nothing succeeds like suc-
cess and nothing fails like failure : this paramount law will
regulate the literary activities of Indo-Anglians as well as those
of other classes! of Indian men of letters.

Another criticism often advanced against the Indo-
Anglians is that their English is not pure enough. It is no
doubt inevitable that vernacularisms should creep into the
language of the Indo-Anglians. An Indo-Anglian may never
be quite able to achieve perfect mastery in English idiom;
in other words, Indo-Anglian English may never be wholly
indistinguishable from King’s English. But, then, why should
it be ? For one thing, Mr. Bernard Shaw says that there is no
such thing as “correct English”; for another, the Report of
the Sadler Commission on the Calcutta University rightly
points out :

“We do not mean that the English of the Indian
would necessarily be indistinguishable from that of the
English-bom citizen. But it would be by special qualities
and characteristics that it would be distinguished, not by
incongruities and faults”.

Professor Amaranatha Jha is also in agreement with the above
and is not frightened, as are more timid professors and pundits,
by the term “Indian English”; on the contrary, he declares
boldly : ” A little courage, some determination, a wholesome
respect for our own idioms, and we shall before long have a
virile, vigorous Indian English”. Be that as it may, it is
^trange’TRafTnot English critics and scholars, but it is the


Iiido-Anglian purists and (professors who are themselves in-
habiting very vulnerable glass-houses that throw these

stones at the Indo- Anglian practitioners of prose and verse !


In any case, it is to little purpose to discuss interminably
whether Indians should or should not write in English. They
have done so in the past, and they will do so in the future
for a long time yet ; we are here, not in the realm of j>gecula:
tign, but of facts and of recorded achievement. Granted that
some Indians a good number of themare sure to write in
English* in the future, can we offer helpful suggestions regard-
ing the future of Indo- Anglian literature ?

The Indian writer of to-day has to wage a prolonged war
against a host of adverse circumstances, a war that, more
ofteh than not, daunts and defeats him at last and anyhow
leaves him exhausted! and ^bereft of all hope. We have few
really enterprising and discriminating publishers, few acknow-
ledged and competent reviewers, few high-class literary journals,
and no adequately organized book trade. Many Indo-Anglian
authors are obliged to publish their own books, arrange for
their distribution, keep accounts, send out parcels, write all
sorts of business letters, in short, to be by turns author,
printer, publisher, hawker, accountant, book-seller, peon, and
advertiser ! Under the circumstances, the average Indo-
Anglian is content to print about one hundred copies of his
books, present them to a few reviewers or friends, and wait
for orders which never come.

However, of late a few publishing firms like Tarapote-
wala, New Book Company, Thackers, Karnatak Publishing
House, Kitabistan, G. A. Natesan, Ram Narain Lai, Theosophic-
al Publishing House, Kitab Mahal, Padma Publications,
Signet Press, Minerva Book Depot, and a few others hav


come into existence and are very active, more especially since
the commencement of World War II. ‘ But even these publishers
.are not always enterprising enough and are generally though
not always unwilling to take reasonable risks. The tendency
is always to produce books that will sell immediately or books
that can be prescribed as school or college text-books. But a
beginning has been made anyhow and even these war time
publications have given a fillip to book production in India.

It is besides creditable that on the form side also books
published in India recently, notwithstanding the scarcity of
paper and calico and strawboard, compare not unfavourably
with books pfoSuced in America or in the continent of Europe.
Again, some of our better organized newspapers and journals
are now-a-days giving due importance to book-reviewing.

We have thus clearly made a hopeful beginning : but much
more remains to be done. We want enterprising publishers,
magazines, and newspapers ; we want editors and publishers
who will make the profession of letters a paying profession ;
we want all-India organizations of authors, publishers, editors,
and book-sellers ; we want reliable authors’ agents who will
relieve authors of the burden of the purely business side of
authorship ; we want National Book Councils and annual All-
India Book Exhibitions ; and, above all, we want authors,
more and more of them, men and women itnbuegl with courage
and faith, men and women who are prepared to see into the
uttermost truth of things and to say the things they have seen
for the edification of common humanity, men and women who
have tficTvisloir’and the strength to be the leaders and law-
givers of to-day and to-morrow. The night is heavy, but the
dew-filled dawn is just round the corner ; the hour is preg-
nant with possibilities and if only we do not Drove fals” to
ourselves the future is ours, and it will be a glorious future
indeed !




The war has proved both an immitigable curse and a
blessing in disguise to Indian publishers, it has proved a
curse because war-time controls of all sorts are trying to
strangle the production and distribution of books and periodic-
als. On the other hand, the war 1 has proved a blessing in dis-
guise to Indian publishers because there is now a very real
and still growing demand for new books. Thanks principally to
the self-less jKndeayours of those of our men of letters who
care for culture and literature more than for ready returns, Indo-
Angfian journalism and Indo-Anglian literature are yet instru-
ments of knowledge or engines of culture in these hectic, myopic,
uncertain days.

We have, no doubt, to judge the living quality of a litera-
ture by its new poetry ; and the past twelve months have wit-
nessed many new arrivals. At the same time, the veterans are
also challengingly alive. Harindranath Chattopadhyaya’s
Blood of Stones is forged in the flaming fire of the poet’s an-
guish, and the book is topical without ceasing to be poetry ; and
a poem like ” The (pavement of Calcutta” is remorseless, grim
and terribly articulate. Look on Undaunted, P. R. Kaikini’s
latest book of poems, reflects a tnind sensitive to the many tre-
mors and quakes and marsh vapours in the contemporary world,
and its disturbed and hurried accents partake of the uncertainty
and feverishness of these frenzied days. Sardar K. M. Panik-
kar’s poem, The Waves of Thought, is a vigorous English ren-
dering of his own Malayalam poem ; it is richly laden with
memories, bitter-sweet memories that ” in time blossom into
many-hued flowers “. Nilima Devi’s When the Moon Died is a
very finely produced book, and its contents are not unworthy of
the superb get-up ; Nilima is somewhat of a modernist poet


but it is satisfactory to note that the emphasis is, not on
“modernist”, but on “ipoet”. Hutnayun Kabir published his
first book of poems about twelve years ago ; and he has enhanc-
ed the reputation he then gained with his new bode, Mahatma
and Other Poenqs. And Fyzee-Rahamin’s Man and Other Poems
contains quite a few good poems.

Of the new arrivals, Nolini Kanta Gupta’s To the Heights
is a collection of inspiring lyrics that summon the questing soul
to the sun-lit heights of Realization ; most of the forty-six pieces
in the book are in free verse, but their urgency and poetic qu-
ality are beyond disputation. Another new arrival, S. R. Donger-
kery, is an inveterate traditionalist ; The Ivory Tower, his first
book, has won the affection of many lovers of poetry by the im-
mediacy of its appeal ; and, indeed, it is refreshing to come
across a poet like Dongerkery who is content to see things with
a child’s wonder and reverence and who expresses his thoughts
through home-spun felicities of sound and colour.
Other new arrivals are K. S. Anantasubramony (Fledgeling
Flights), R. V. M. G. Ramrau (No. ..Name and Visions) and
M. J. Gordhandas (A Forlorn Hope). Besides, stray new poems
by veterans like Armando Menezes, Bhushan, Adi K. Sect,
Kaikini and Fyzee-Rahamin as also by freshers like Donger-
kery, Cyril Modak, Wellington Figuereido and Kamala Donger-
kery appear from time to time in the pages of our literary
periodicals and give ample evidence of poetic activity. Of
the new poets, Cyril Modak suggests great possibilities and
his work is already rich in striking qualities. As a poet, he
has a vision and a voice of his own. He is professedly a
” progressive ” poet, delighting more in the ” bivouac of
battle” than in “moonlit gardens”. The underdog, the ex-
ploited, the outcaste, these are the recurrent themes of his
poetry. But he is a poet, not because his themes are progres-
sive, but because his responses are quick and genuine and his


articulation is strident and clear. His are truly poems of chal-
lenge, they bite or bleed, and his rhythms and stanza patterns
are virile with the virility of youth and rugged with the rug-
gedness of Himalayan rocks. Occasionally, Cyril Modak for-
gets himself in Love’s pure rapture, and he then achieves an
^nblemished note whose melod/ overpowers us with its nec-
tarmess and joy.

Many short stories are appearing in our Sunday newspapers
and other magazines, and some of them by an R. K. Narayan,
a Khooshie L. Punjabi or a Mrs. Shantabai, for instance
seem destined to outlive the year in which they are first publi-
shed. Of new novels, Khwaja Ahmed Abbas’s Tomorrow is
Ours deserves special mention ; although the creative artist is
now and then smothered by the screen writer, his delineation
of ‘Parvati, the heroine, is human enough to be convincing.

Another recent book by Abbas is Invitation to Immortality,
an interesting and most enjoyable little play that ought to be a
success on the stage. Some good fiction has also appeared in
the form of translationsr I have in mind especially Short Stories
and Subbwma by Masti Venkatesa iyengar and Best Short Stori-
es of Modern Bengal, translated by Nilima Devi. Two more
books of fiction worth reading are Kumara Guru’s Life’s Sha-
dows, Volume II, and George Barret’s Forty-Three Years :
Jayant and Tara, the first volume of a projected trilogy whose
laudable aim is to “produce a very authentic record of the
life and emotions of * average India ‘ “.

One of the unexpected publications of the year & The
Letters of the Rt. Hon. V. S. Srinivasa Sastri. Everybody
knows, of course, Sastriar’s eminence as a flawless English
speaker and writer ; but his letters nevertheless come to us as a
most agreeable surprise. The immaculate liberal statesman
is a human being after all ; and his letters, to public person-


ages or to private individuals, to solemn Secretaries of State or
to intimate members of the family, are alike works of prose
art ‘that reveal the poise, the incorruptible integrity, and the
utter humanity of the man. The letters are really letters,
not learned essays on Napoleon or on the constitution of rocks
or on the Binomial Theorem ; and the letters are also an -ex*
quisite foot-note to the political history of India during the
past thirty years.

Krishna Hutheesing’s autobiography, With No Regrets,
challenges comparison with her brother Jawaharlal’s tnore fa-
mous Autobiography. Her candid^ narrative is interspersed
with delicate pen-portraits of the various members of her
family, and her prose^style is clear and easy and natural. It
is a measure of the popularity of the book that it has already
appeared in a second edition.

On the occasion of Gandhiji’s recent birthday, the Karna-
tak Publishing House brought out a sumptuous volume con-
taining a number of informative and interpretative articles on
his life and work ; like the similar volume edited by Professor
Radhakrishnan a few years ago a volume that has recently
cortie but in a second edition this weighty and fastidiously
got-up publication also will take a permanent place in Gandhi
literature. Of other biographical and critical studies, I might
mention here Sachchidananda Sinha’s Some Eminent Bihar
Contemporaries, Madan Copal’s Premchand, Dhurjati Prasad
Mtikherji’s Rabindranath Tagore and Ahmed Ali’s Mr. Eliot’s
Petmy World of Dreams. Nor should I omit to make a refer-
ence to Ahmed Abbas’s competent and moving story of the
Indian medical mission to China, . . .and One did not Come
Back; it is, incidentally, a fitting tribute to the memory of Dr.
Kotnis, a memory that belongs “not only to our two great
nations but also to the noble ranks of the indomitable fighters
for freedom -and progress of all mankirkT. j


Books in a lighter vein are rather rare. The war-weary
but war-ridden world is too much with us, and we have little
time to smile or to laugh. However, N. G. Jog’s Onions and
Opinions, G. L. Metha’s Perversities and Frene Talyarkhan’s
Pardon Me are books that one might read without tears, but
with very real pleasure. Besides, writers like “Jove” of the
Social Welfare and R. Bangaruswami of My Magazine are
giving us regular doses of deliciously satirical or humorous
stuff, in a language that achieves again and again either a
pctoiard’s edge or a rainbow ^usiveness and whimsicality. Like
all good satirists, ” Jove ” TjoseplT John) ITltisbT firetly, an
artist v with an infallible sense of form, and, secondly, a
humorist with an infallible sense of the ludicrous.

As for “serious” studies, their name is legion. Professor
K>T. Shah’s Why Pakistan and why Not? is, like all his
works, weighty, conscientious and thorough, and is the most
indispoisable book on this most contentious subject. Cyril
Slodak’s two recent books Marching Millions and India’s
Destiny are brilliantly written tracts for the times ; I fed
that I am the soberer and wiser for having read them, especi-
ally Indicts Destiny ; and I should like it to reach the Indian
masses through competent translations. Like many other
educated men, Cyril Modak also is a clever man and a learn-
ed man ; but he is also something that very few other “educ-
ated” men are he is a wise man who is able to see through
the dbuds of controversy and sight and reveal to us the splen-
doroiis moon of India’s great destiny. Other challenging re-
cent “studies are D. Pant’s The Varsities, “Cactus’s” Give
Democracy a Chance, M. R. Masani’s Socialism Reconsidered
and ‘Humayun Kabir’s Muslim Politics, now in its third en-
larged edition.

A ‘few outstanding works of scholarship also have appear-
ed in English of late. R. S. Ruidit’s efficient translation of


Mudra-Rakshasa, with a long historical and critical “Post-
script “, has recently appeared, and gives us cause to regret all
the more his untimely demise^ Pandit’s literary rendering of
Mudra-Rakshasa is nearly as beautiful as Laurence Binyon’s
Shakuntala and Sri Aurobindo’s The Hero and the Nymph.
Lastly, Radhakumud Mukherji’s Chandragupta Maurya,
Sharma’s Studies in the Renaissance of Hinduism in the 19th
cmd 20th Centuries, K M. Munshi’s The Glory that teas
Gurjaradesha and R. N. Saletore’s Life in the Gupta Age are
among the meritorious historical treatises published in recent
months. –


BASU, Lotika, Indian Writers of English Verse (1933).

The Peacock Lute (1945);

The Moving Finger (1945).

CHIDA, A. R., An Anthology of Indo-Anglian Verse (1935)
COUSINS, James H., The Renaissance in India (1918).
DUNN, T. O. D., A Bengali Book of English Verse U918).
GOODWIN, Gwendoline, An Anthology of Modern Indian Poetry


IYENGAR, K. R. Srinivasa, Inda- Anglian Literature (1943).
MACNICOL, Margaret, Poems by Indian Women (1923).
OATEN, E. F., Anglo-Indian Literature (1908K
SESHADRI, R, Anglo-Indian Poetry (1930).
SINGH, Bhupal, A Survey of Anglo-Indian Fiction (1934).
SPEIGHT, E. E., Indian Masters of English (1934).
WRIGHT, S. Fowler, From Overseas (from 1924 onwards).
AMRITA, Visions <*nPEREiRA, F. J. % Mind’s Mirror (1941).
FURTADO, Joseph,

Poems (19Q1) ;

Lays of Old Goa (1910) ;

A Goan Fiddler (1927) ;

The Desterrado (1929) ;

Songs in Exile (1938). ‘

GHOSE, Sri Aurobindo, Collected Poems and Plays (2 volumes, 1942).
GHOSE, Kashiprosad, The Shair and Other Poems (1830).
GHOSE, Manmohan,

Love Songs and Elegies (;1898) ;

Songs of Love and Death (1926).
GILBERT, M., Lyrics and Sonnets (1942).
GUPTA, Nolini Kanta, To the Heights (1944).
HUSSAIN, A. S. H., Loyal Leaves (1911) ;

Priceless Pearls (191,1).
ISVARAN, Manjeri S.,

Saffron and Gold (1932) ;

Altar of Flowers (1934);

Catguts (1940) ;

Brief Orisons (1941).
JUNG, Nawab Sir Nijamat,

Sonnets (1918).

Islamic Poems (1935).
KABARDAR, A. F., The Silken Tassel (1918).


KABIR, Humayun,

Poems (1932) ; Mahatma and Other Poems (1944).
KABRAJI, Fredon.,

A Swan Song (1945).

Flower Offerings (193^4) ;

Songs of a Wanderer (1936) ;

This Civilization (.1937) ;

Shanghai (1939) ;

The Snake in the Moon (1942) ;

Look on Undaunted (1944).
KAILASAM, T. P., Lays and Plays (1933).
KASHYAP, Mohanlal, Rakshabandhan and Other Poems (1941).
KATHIB, A. L., Whispering Stars (1937).
KIRTANE, M. D., Maya’s Veil (1944).
KRISHNAMURTI, J., The Immortal Friend (1928).

Songs and Rose Leaves (1927) ;

The Lama’s Tale (1930) ;

Love Sonnets and Other Poems (1937).

The Feast of the Crystal Heart (1928) ;

Among the Silences (1928) ;

Awakened Asia (1930);

The Lay of the Lotus (1939) ;

Southern Idylls (1939). ‘ X

MALABARI, Behramji, The Indian Muse in English Garb (,1877).
MENEZES, Armando,

The Fund (1933) ;

The Emigrant (1933));

Chords and Discords (1939);

Chaos and Dancing Star (1940).
MODY, Jehangir R. P.,

Golden Harvest (1932) ;

Golden Gleanings (1933’K
MUKHERJI, Dhan Gopal Rajani,

Songs oj the Night ;

Sandhya, Songs of Twilight.


NAIDU, Sarojini,

The Golden Threshold (1905) ;

The Broken Wing (1912) ;

The Bird of Tim* (1917).

Courting the Muse (1879).

RM, Nagesh Wisihwanath, The Angel of Misfortune (19()4).
PANIKKAR, K. M., The Waves of Thought (1944).
PUNJALAL, Lotus Petals (1943).
RAHAMIN, Fyzee. Man and Other Poems (1944).
RAO, B. Vasudeva, Of Here and Hereafter (1932).
RAMRAO, R. V. M. G., No . Name (1943)
RAMAKRISHNA. T. f Tales of hid (1895).
RANGACHARYA, I. V., El Tidero (1939).
RODRIGUES, Manuel C., Homeward (1939).
ROY, Anilbaran, Songs from the Soul (1939).
SALETORE, B N., Savitri (1919).
SARABHAI, Bharati, The Well of the People (1943).
SASTRI, Diwan Bahadur K. S. Ramaswami, The Light o\ Lije (1938).
SEAL, Brajendranath, The Quest Eternal (193).

Sonnets (1914) ;

Bilhana (1914) ,

Champak Leaves (1923) ,

Vanished Hours (1923).
SKTHNA, H. D. t Struggling Heights (1944).

Artist Love (^925) ;

The Secret Splendour (194,1).
SHARMA, Ram, Poetical Works (1918).
SHUNGLOO, Krishan, The Night is Heavy (1943).
SUHRAWARDY, Shahid, Essays in Verse (19S7).
TAOORE, Rabindranath,

Collected Poems and Plays (1937) ;

The Child (1931) ;

Poems (1942).

TAIGORE, Subho, Rubble (1936).
TALOOKDAR, Byram, Pianissimo (1940).



Triumph of Delhi (1916) ;

Krishna’s Flute (1919) ;

Asoka and Other Poems (1922) ;

Garden of the East (1932).
VAKIL, Raman, To Euwpa (,1942).
VENKATARAMANI, K. S., On the Sand-dunes (1923),


ABBAS, Khwaja Ahamed, Invitation to Immortality (1944>
ABDULLA, V., (in collaboration), We Accuse-,

Talk jor Food (1944).
AYYAR, A. S. P.,

Slave of Ideas and Other Plays (1941) ;

The Trial of Science jor the Murder of Humanity ( 1943).
BHATT, Suryadutt, The Trial Celestial (1940).

Anklet Bells ;

Samyukta ;

Mortal Coils.

BORGAONKAR, D. M., The Image Breakers.
CHATTDPADHYAYA, Harindranath, Five Plays.
DHINGRA, Baldoon, The Awakening.
DUTT, Michael Madhusudan,

Ratnavali ;

Is this called Civilization? (1871).
GHOSE, Sri Aurobindo,

The Hero and the Nymph (1942) ;

Perseus the Deliverer (1942).
IYENGAR, K. R. Srinivasa,

Suniti & Her Spouse or Storm in
Tea-cup (1942) ;

The Battte of the Optional* (1943).

lYENGAR, V. V. Srinivasla, Dramatic Divertissements (2 volumes).
JAVERI, Shanti, Deluge (,1944).

KHAN, Mohd, A. R., Zamvr or Conscience Personified.
MENEZES, Armando, Caste, a Social Comedy.
MENEZES, Nicolau J., The Son of Man (1935).
MUKHERJI, Dhan Gopal, Layla-Majnu.


NARAYAN, R. K., The Watchman of the Lake (1941).
RAHAMIN, Fyzee, Daughter of Ind. (1940).
RAJU, P. V. Ramaswami, Lord Likely (1876).
SASTRI, Diwan Bahadur K. S. R., Droupadi.
TAGORE, RaWndranath,

Chitra (1914) ;

Sacrifice (1917) ;

The Post Office (1914) ;

Red Oleanders (1925) ;

The Kmg of the Dark Chamber (1914).


ABBAS, K. Ahmad Tomorrow is Ours (1943).
ALI, Ahmad, Twilight in Delhi (1940).
ANAND, Mulk Raj,

Across the} Black Waters (,1940) ;

The Coolie ;

Two Leaves and a Bud ;

The Untouchable ,

The Village (1939) ; The Big Heart (1945).
AYYAR, A. S. P.,

Baladitya (1930) ;

Indian After-Dinner Stories ;

Three Men of Destiny ;

S&tse in Sex and Other Stories ;

Finger of Destiny and Other Stories.

Tales of Bengal (1910) ;

Indian Detective Stories (1911).
CHAKRABARTI, Kshetrabal,

Sarata and Hingana.
CHATTERJEE, Bankim Giandra.

Durgeshnandini (1880) ;

The Two Rings (1897).

CHATTERJEE, Santa and Sita, The Garden Creeper.
CHATTERJEB, Santa, The Eternal
CHATTERJEE, Sarat Chandra,

Srikantha ;

The Ddiverance, Translated by Dilipkumar Roy (1944),


CHATTERJEE, Sita, The Cage of Gold.

CHETTUR, G. K., The Chest City and Other Stories (1932).


Muffled Drums (1927) ;

The Cobras of Dharmashevi (,1937) ; * –

Bombay Murder (1940).
CHINNADURAI, J., Sugirtha.
CHINTAMANI, V. V., Vedantam.
DEVI, Raj Lakshmi,

The Hindu Wife or the Enchanted Fruit (1876).
Durr, H., Bijoy Chand (1888).

The Lake of Palms (1902).

The Slave-Girl of Agra (1909).
FURTADO, Joseph, Golden Goa (1938).

1001 Nights (1904) ;

the Prince of Destiny (1909).
GHOSHAL, Mrs 1 ., An Unfinished Song (19,13) ;

The Fatal Garland (1915).
GOUR, Sir Hari Singh, His Only Love (1930).
GRACIAS, Louis, Wild Winds (1940).
GUPTA, Dilip and Nilima Devi : Best Stories of Modern Bengal


GUPTA, Nareshchandra Sen, The Idiot’s Wife.
GURU, Kumara,

Life’s Shadows (1938) ;

A Daughters Shadow (1944).

HABIB, Muhammad, The Desecrated Bones and Other Stows (1929).
ISVARAN, Manjeri.

The Naked Shingles (194,1).

Angry Dust (1944).
IYENGAR, Masti Venkatesla,

Short Stories (4 volumes, 1943) ;

Subarma (1943).

KABIR, Humayun, Men and Rivers (1944). ,

Just Flesh (,1940) ;


Thtire Lay the City (1941) ;

We Never Die (1944).

KRISHNA, Bal, The Love of Kusuma (1910).
LAHIRI, Kali Krishna, Roshinara (1881).

Kusikas Stories ;

Panju ;

Thillai Govindan.

MITRA, S. M. Hindupore, a Peep behind the Indian Unrest.
MUKHERJI, Dhan Gopal,

The Chief of the Herd ;

Kari the Elephant \

My Brother’s Face ;

Ghond the Hunter ;

Gay-neck, the Story of a Pigeon.
NAGARAJAN, S., Athawar House ; Cold Rice ( 1945) .

Swami and Friends (1985) ;

Bachelor of Arts (1936) ;

The Dark Room (1938) ;

Malgudi Days (1941) ;

Dodu and Other Stories (1943).
NOON, Sir Firoz Khan, Scented Dust.
RAM, Shanker,

The Children of the Kaveri (1927) ;

Creatures All (,1931) ;

The Love of Dust (1938).
Padmini (1903);

The Dive /or Death (1912).
RAO, Raja, \Kanthapura.

SATYANADAN, Kamala, Detective fanaki (1944).
SHARAR, Dewan,

The Gong of Shiva.

Eastern Tales (1944).
SETT, Adi K., Chameleons (1928).
SINGH, Sir Jogendra,
Kamla ;

Kamni (.1931).;


Nasrm ;

– Nur Jehan (1909).
SORABJI, Cornelia,

Love and Lije behind the Purdah (1901) ;

Sun-Babies (1904) ;

Between the Twilights (1908).
SOUSA, Innocent, Radha a Hindu Belle.
SUBRAMANIAM, A., Indira Devi.
TAGORE, Rabindranath,

Hungry Stones and Other Stories (1916) ;

Mashi and Other Stories (,1918) ;

The Home and the World (1919) ;

The Wreck (1921) ;

Cora (1923) ;

Broken Ties and Other Stories (1925).

TRIKANNAD, Ramabai, Victory of Faith and Other Stories (1935).

Murugan the Tiller (1927);

Kandan the Patriot (1932) ;

Jatadharan and Other Stories (1937).
ALI, Ahmad, Mr. Eliot’s Penny World of Dreams (1943).
ANAND, Mulk Raj, Curries & Other Indian Dishes (1932).
BANERJI, H. K. Henry Fielding, His Life and Works.
BANGARUSWAMI, R., My Lord Kukudoon Koon (1945).
BHATTACHARJI, Mohinimohan,

Platonic Ideas in Spenser.

Keats and Spencer (1944).
CHAIKRAVARTI, Amiya, The Dynasts & the Post-War Age in Poetry


CHANDAVARKAR, Sir Narayan, Light for Life.

Art and Swadeshi ;

Mediaeval Sinhalese Art ;

The Transformation of Nature in Art ;

A New Approach to the Vedas

History of Indian & Indonesian Art (1927) ;

The Dance of Shiva ;

An Introduction to Indian Art (1923)/


CORREIA-AFONSO, F., Plain Living, and Plain Thinking (1940).
DAS, Harihar, Life & Letters of Toru Dutt (192,1).
DHINGRA, Baldoon, Genms and Artistic Temperament ;

Writ m Sand (1943).

DONGERKERY, Kamala., Karnatak Miniatures (1945).
DUTT, K. Iswara, And All That (1931).
GANGOLY, O. CX, The Earth Goddess in Indian Art (1944).
CHOSE, Sri Aurobindo, Kalidasa (1929) ;
The Renaissance in India ;
The National Value of Art (1936) ;
Heraclitus (1941) ;’
Views and Reviews (1941).
GOPAL, Madan, Premchand (1944).
GUHA, P. K. Tragic Relief (193).

GUPTA, Nagendranath, The Place of Man and Other Essays (1931).
GUPTA, S. C. Sen, The Art of Bernard Shaw.
HALDAR, Asitkumar, Art and Tradition (194,1).
IYENGAR, K. R. Srinivasa,

Lytton Strachey, a Critical Study (1938);
Literature & Authorship in India (1943) ;
On Beauty (1945).
IYENGAR, Masti Venkatesa,

Popular Culture w Karnataka ;
Poetry of Valmiki (1940).
IYBR, P. G. Sahasratiama, Tragi-Comedy hi English & Sanskrit

Dramatic Literature (1933) ;
The Description of the Seasons in English & Sanskrit Literature

JHA, Amarnatha,

Shakespearian Comedy & Other Studies (1930);
Literary Studies (1929) ;
Occasional Essays & Addresses (1942).
JOG, N. G., Onions and Opinions (J944).
JOHN, Joseph (Jove), The Gospel of St. Amery (1945).
JUNG, Nawab Sir Nijamat,
Morning Thoughts ;
Casual Reflections (1939).


KABIR, Humayun,

Poetry, Monads and Society (1941) ;

Saratchandra Chatter jee (1942).

Oh You English ;

The Pulse of Oxford.

KHADYE, K. M., Croce’s Aesthetic (1922).
KELKAR, N. C., Pleasures and Privileges of th ~
M^SANI, Minoo, Our India.

MASANI, Sir Rustum, Dadabhai Naoroji (1939).
MAZUMDAR, A. C.. Indian, National Evolution (1915).

Leaders of India (1941) ;

A Trip to Pakistkan (1943).
MUKHERJI, Radhakumud,

The Fundamental Unity of India (1914);

Men and Thought in Ancient India (1924) ;

Hindu Civilization (1937).

/ Follow the Mahatma (1940);

The Glory that was Gurjaradesha (1944).
NAOROJI, Dadabhai, Povery and Un-British Rule in I’ndiai.

West of Suez ;

Lallubhai Samaldas.
NEHRU, Jawaharlal,

Glimpses of World History ;

Letters from a Father to a Daughter ;


. Autobiography ;

Eighteen Months in India ;

Toward Freedom.

PANDIT, Vijayalakshmi, So I Became a Minister ; Prison Days (1945;.
PARMANAND, Bhai, The Story of My Life.
PILLAI, G. Parameswaran,

Representative Indians :

London & Paris through Indian Spectacle? (1898).
RAI, Lala Lajpat, Unhappy India.
R \NADE, M. G.,

The Rise of the Marat ha Power ( 1900) ;

Indian Economics (1898) ;

The Wisdom of a Modern Kishi (Selections: 1942).
Rjo, Khasa, Men in the Limelight (1941).
RAO, K. Subba, Rt rived Memories \1933).
RAY, P. C, Life and Times o) C. R. Das (1927).
SARKAR, Jadunath,

History oj AuraHgajib ;

Shivaji ;

Chaitanya, his Life & Teachings ;

India through the Ages (1928).
SARKAR, Benoy Kumar, The Sociology of Races, Cultures and Human

Prognss (1941).
SASTRI, V. S. Srinivasa, Life of Gokhale ; Letters of V. S. Srintvasa

Sastri (1944).

Life and Times of Phirozeshah Mehta (1945).
SAVARKAR, V. D., Hindu Pad Padshahi.
SHAH, K T., The Splendour that was Ind. (1930).
SHAHANI, T. K , Copal Krishna Gokhale :

a Historical Biography (1929 ) .
SHKIDHARANI. Krishnalal,

My England, My America ;

Warning to the West.

SIDDHIQUI, A. H., Caliphate <fc Kingship in Mtdiaeval Persia.
SINGH, Iqbal, Gautama Buddha (1937).
SINHA, Sachchidananda,

The Stparation of Bihar and the Partition

of Bengal ;


Some Eminent Bihar Contemporaries (1943) ;

Kashmir : the Playground of Asia (1943).
SITARAMAYYA, Pattabhi, History of the Congress (1935).
TAGORE, Rabindranath,

Reminiscences ( 1917 ) .
TILAK, Bal Gangadhar, Orion (1896) ;

The Arctic Home of the Vrdas (1903).

Epic India ;

The Riddle of the Ramayana.

Life of J. N. Tata ;

Shells ]wm the Sands of Bombay (1920).

Krishna (19S4) ;

Christ ;

Buddha ;

Muhammad (1923) ;

The Belle of Bali ;

Under the Southern Cross.
WADIA, P. A , Mahatma Gandhi (1939).


ALI, Ameer, Ethics of Islam (1922).

AMBEDKAR, B. R. Thoughts on Pakisthan (2nd Edn.. 1915K

ANAND, Mulk Raj, Letters on India (1943).


Vaishnavism, Saivism & Minor Religious

Systems (1928).
BOSE, Jagadish Chandra,

Plant Autographs and Revelations ;

The Nervous Mechanism of Plants ;

Response in the Living and Non-living,
DAS, Bhagwan,

Hindu Ethics ;

The Essential Unity of All Religions.
DASGUPTA, Surendranath,

Htotfu Mytficism^ (1927) ;

Indian Idealism (193$).


DATTA, D. M, The Six Ways of Knowing (1933).

Hind Swaraj ;

Guide to Health.
CHOSE, Sri Aurobindo,

Essays on the Gita (1928) ;

The Riddle of This World (1983) ;

The Mother (,1937) ;

Bases of Yoga (1941) ;

The Life Divine (1941).
GOUR, Hari Singh, The S.pirit of Buddhism.
GUPTA, Nolini Kanta,

The Coming Race (1923)).;

The Malady of the Century (1943);

The Yoga of Sri Aurobindo (1943).
HIRIYANNA, M., Outlines of Indian Philosophy (1933).
IOBAL, Sir Muhammad,

The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (1909);

The Reconstruction of ReligiotM Thought in Islam (1934K
IYENGAR, S. Srinivasfc,

Law and Law Reform ;

Problems of Democracy in India (1939) ;

Stalemate & Reorganization (1940) ;

Maynes Hindu Law (1939).
IYER, B R. Rajam, Rambles in Vedanta.
IYER, C. P. Ramaswami, World Religions (1943).
JHA, Ganganath,

Philosophical Discipline (1926) ;

Sankara Vedanta (1939).

Life in Freedom ;

The Kingdom of Happiness.
M., The Gospel of Ramakrishna.

MASANI, Sir Rustum, The Religion of the Good Life (J939),

Hindu Religion and Society (1894);

'The Spirit of God (1894).
MODAK, Cyril,

Mmching Millions (1944) ;


India's Destiny (1944).

NAIR, Sir Sankaran, Gandhi and Anarchy (1922).
NANDIMATH, S. C., A Handbook of Virasaivism (1941).
PAL, Bepin Chandra, Indian Nationalism (1918).

Indian Philosophy (1927-8) ;

The Hindu View of Life ;

An Idealist View of Life (1932) ;

Jtdki ;

The Reign of Religion in Contemporary Philosophy ;

The Heart of Hindusthan (1932) ;

Eastern Religions & Western Thought.'

RANGACHARYA, M., Lectures on the Bhagvad Gita (^ volumes).
RAJAGOPALACHARI, C. The Way Out (1943).

Mysticism in Maharashtra ;

A Constructive Survey of Upanishadic Philosophy (1926).
RAO, P. KodancJa, East versus West.
ROY, M. N., Freedom or Fascism.
ROY, Raja Rammohan, Precepts of Jews (1820) ;

The English Works (ed. by ]. C. Chose) in Three Volumes
(190,1). !

RUTHNASWAMY, M., The Making of the State (1933).
SAKKAR, Mahendranath,

Eastern Lights ;

Comparative Studies in the Vedavta.
SASTRI, V. S. Srinivasfc,

Birthright (1940) ;

JRights and Duties of the Indian Citizen (2nd edition, 1935).
SEAL, Brajendranath,

Comparative Studies in Vaishnavism and
Christianity (1899) ;

The Positive Sciences of the Ancient Hindus (1915),
SETHNA, H. D., Fifteen Years 'Ahead (1945).

SHAH, K. T.,

Provincial Autonomy ;

Federal Structure ;

Why Pakisthan and WJiy Not (1944).


SINGH, St. NihaH The Urge Divine.

The Philosophy of Visishtadvaita (1943);

The Philosophy of Bheda-Bheda ;

The Philosophy of the Beautiful (1942) ;

The Ethical Philosophy of the Gita (1943).
SRIRAM, Lala, The Metaphysics of the Upanishads (1885).
SUBEDAR, Manu, The Gita Explained by Dnyaneshwar Maharaj


TAGORE, Rabindranath,
* Sadhana (1913).

Personality (.1917) ;

Creative Unity (1922) ;

The Religion of Man (1930).

The Mystery of the Mahabharata (193,1-5).
TIRTH, Swami Ram, Collected Works.
VENKATARAMANI, K. S., The Next Rung (1928).
VIVEKANANDA, Swami, Collected Works (Seven Volumes in.'

the Advaita Ashrama Edition).
ZACHARIAS, H. C. E,, Renascent India (1933).


The Hindu, Madras.

The Indian Express, Madras'.

The Amrita Bazar Patrika. Calcutta.

The Leader, Allahabad.

The Bombay Chronicle, Bombay.

The Free Press Journal, Bombay.

The Tribune, Lahore.

The Hindusthan Times, Delhi.

The Dawn, Delhi.

Hitavada, Nagpur.


The Indian Social Reformer, Bombay.
The Social Welfare, Bombay f
The All-India Weekly, Bombay,


The Forum Bombay.
Blitz, Bombay.
, Bharat Jyoti, Bombay.
The Mahratta, Poona.
Free India, Salem.
Mysindia, Bangalore.
Roy's Weekly, Delhi.
Concord, Calcutta.
Orient Weekly, Calcutta.


India, Calcutta.

The Calcutta Review.

The Modern Review, Calcutta.

The New Review, Calcutta.

The Indian Review, Madras.

The Aryan Path, Bombay.

The Prabuddha Bharata, Mayavati.

The Hindusthan Review, Patna.

The Twentieth Century Allahabad.

The Indian P. E. N., Bombay.

The New Indian Antiquary, Bombay.

The Caravan, Delhi.


The Visvabharati Quarterly, Shantiniketan.

The Marxist Way, Calcutta.

The Hindoosthan Quarterly, Calcutta.

Art and Culture, Calcutta.

Indian Thought, Mysore.

The Advent, Madras.

Journal #/ Indian History, Madras 1 .

The Triveni Quarterly, Bangalore.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s