Mir Painda Khan
Mir Painda Khan, son of Mir Nawab Khan (who defeated the Durranis), is famed for his rebellion against Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s governors of Hazara. Painda Khan “played a considerable part in the history of his time and vigorously opposed the Sikhs.”
From about 1813, Mir Painda Khan spent a life long rebellion against the Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh Governor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh to Hazara, took the initiative during his governorship of setting up forts at strategic locations to keep Painda Khan in check.
Painda Khan’s rebellion against the Sikh empire cost him a major portion of his kingdom, leaving only the tract around Amb, with his twin capitals Amb and Darband. This increased his resistance against the Sikh government.
In 1828 Mir Painda Khan gifted the territory of Phulra as an independent Khanate to his brother Madad Khan, which later on was recognised by the British as a semi-independent Princely State.
Painda Khan was the Nawab of Amb who took over the valley of Agror in 1834, but in I841 it was restored by the Sikhs to Ata Muhammad, a descendant of Sad-ud-din.
General Dhaurikal Singh, commanding officer of the Sikh troops in Hazara, had Painda Khan poisoned to death in September 1844. Painda Khan is still revered in Hazara as a hero.
Major J. Abbott commented that ‘During the first period of Painda Khan’s career, he was far too vigorous and powerful to be molested by any neighbouring tribe, and when he began to fail before the armies and purse of the Sikh Government, he was interested in keeping upon the best terms with his northern neighbours of the Black Mountains.’ He is further described by him as, ‘a Chief renowned on the Border, a wild and energetic man who was never subjugated by the Sikhs.’
Mir Jehandad Khan
“Of all the tribal chiefs of Hazara, the most powerful [was] said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli.” His territories laid on both banks of the Indus, and, as the son of Painda Khan, Jehandad Khan was particularly well respected among his peoples.
When Sikh power was on the fall in 1845 Jehandad Khan blockaded the garrisons of no less than 22 Sikh posts in Upper Tanawal ; and when they surrendered at discretion, he spared their lives, as the servants of a fallen Empire. “The act, however, stood him afterwards in good stead; for, when Hazara was assigened to Maharaja Golab Singh, that politic ruler rewarded Jehandad Khan’s humanity with the jagir of Koolge and Badnuck in Lower Tannowul.”
As far as Jehandad Khans hereditary domain of Upper Tanawal, with the capital at Amb is concerned, the term ‘jagir’ has never been applicable to it. The British Government considered Upper Tannowul as a chiefship held under the British Government, but in which, as a rule, they did not possess internal jurisdiction. The Chief managed his own people in his own way without regard to British laws, rules or system. This tenure resembled that on which the Chiefs of Patiala, Jhind, Nabha, Kapurthala and others held their lands.
In 1852, Jehandad Khan was summoned by the president of the Board of Administration (who travelled to Hazara to see the Khan) in relation to a murder enquiry of two British officers in his lands. When the president threatened the Khan to give up the murderers or suffer the consequences (of burning down the villages and giving the region to another), the Khan is said to have replied “We should consider your presence (in our kingdom) an honour, but our country is a ‘rather difficult one’ for your army.”
This response was the talk of the day and it is remembered by many locals of Hazara even to this day as a heroic answer.
He was son of Painda Khan. When he died, he left a nine years old boy: Muhammad Akram Khan.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Akram Khan
During the tenure Nawab Sir Akram Khan (K.C.S.I)(1868 – 1907), son of Jehandad Khan, the fort at Shergarh was constructed, along with Dogah and Shahkot Forts. His rule was a peaceful time for Tanawal with no major conflicts. He was later conferred the title Nawab Bahadur by the British Raj.
Not to be confused with Muhammad Akram (1817-1852), one of the sons of Dost Mohammad Khan.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Khanizaman Khan
Nawab Khanizaman Khan, son of Akram Khan, helped the British in carrying out the Black Mountain (Kala Dhaka/Tur Ghar) expeditions.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Farid Khan
Nawab Sir Muhammad Farid Khan (K.B.E) succeeded his father Nawab Khanizaman Khan. He had had a very good relationship with The Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Nawabzada Liaqat Ali Khan. His contributions to the Pakistan movement have been acknowledged by letters from The Quaid e Azam. In 1947 the Nawab of Amb, Mohammad Farid Khan, acceded to Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession of his State, in favour of Pakistan. In 1969, the State was incorporated into the North-West Frontier Province. He died in 1969 and in 1971 the royal status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government of Pakistan.
Malik Nawab Khan Tanoli
Malik Nawab Khan, of Lower Tanawal, is commented by Major J. Abbot as a “Brave man” in his book written on Abbottabad. Malik Nawab Khan was a learned man and an able soldier. He was a strong religious man. Malik Nawab Khan was among the fellow tribesmen of famous Mir Jehandad Khan.
Characteristics and Features of Tribal Tanolis (Based on the classification of Tribes of Indo-Pak by the British)
The Tanolies were counted amongst the Martial races, an ideology based on the assumption that certain ethnic groups are inherently more martially inclined than others( It was a term originally used by the British, who observed that the Scottish Highlanders were more fierce in battle than others in Britain, and extended this concept to India).
They have many Pathan customs and take much pride in their dress and appearance.
The Tanolis support themselves almost exclusively by agriculture, and their principal food is unleavened bread with buttermilk and butter; but fowls, eggs, fish, and game are also articles of diet.
Of those who live in the hills, many are as fair as Italians, with eyes of light hazel or greyish blue, and frequently brown hair and reddish beards. Those who live on the low-lying lands near the Indus are darker. All are stout and active men, and have the reputation of being good soldiers and staunch partisans.
They are hardy and simple in their habits, generally free from the vices of thieving and debauchery; but credulous, obstinate, and unforgiving.
Religiously; they are Mohammedans of the Sunni sect.
The Hindwal and Pallal are the major divisions of the tribe. The further sub?divisions of the tribe are:
Jamal; Charyal, Ledhyal, Abdwal, Khankhail
Saryal; Lalal, Hedral, Baizal
Labhya (Suba Khani)
Painda Khel /also know (Payenda Khel)
Mir Dad Khel
Most members of the Tanoli tribe reside in the former state of Amb in the Hazara Division of the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, in the cities of Abbottabad, Haripur and its district, Mansehra, Battagram and Kohistan districts. A branch of the Tanoli tribe also resides in Kashmir, mainly in Muzaffarabad and Srinagar. Tanolis are also living in some areas of Swabi,Khalabat, Nowshera, Rawalpindi, Gujar Khan and Sultanpur. A significant number of Tanolis also living in Karachi. There are also quite a few Tanoli families residing in the city of Queeta in the Balochistan Province. They dominate the Tanawal-Sherwan belt.
The principal language of the Tanoli is Hindko. Tanolis living in Pashtun dominated areas speak Pashto.
Mir Painda Khan