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South Asian ethnic groups
(Redirected from Ethnic groups of India)
The ethno-linguistic composition of the population of South Asia, that is the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka is highly diverse.[1] The majority of the population fall within two large linguistic groups, Indo-Aryan and Dravidian.[2] Indian society is traditionally divided into castes or clans, not ethnicities, and these categories have had no official status since independence in 1947, except for the scheduled castes and tribes which remain registered for the purpose of affirmative action. In today’s India, the population is categorized in terms of the 1,652 mother tongues spoken.

South Asian Language Families
These groups are further subdivided into numerous sub-groups, castes and tribes. Indo-Aryans form the predominant ethno-linguistic group in Northern India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Dravidians form the predominant ethno-linguistic group in southern India and the northern and eastern regions of Sri Lanka, and a small pocket in Pakistan. Certain Iranian speaking peoples also have a significant presence in South Asia, the large majority of whom are located in Pakistan, with heavy concentrations in Balochistan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Dardic peoples form a minority among the Indo-Aryans. They are classified as belonging to the Indo-Aryan language group,[3] though sometimes they are also classified as external to the Indo-Aryan branch.[4] They are found in northern Pakistan (Northern Areas and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) and in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Minority groups not falling within either large group mostly speak languages belonging to the Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families, and mostly live around Ladakh and Northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh. The Andamanese (Sentinel, Onge, Jarawa, Great Andamanese) live on some of the Andaman Islands and speak a language isolate, as do the Kusunda in central Nepal,[5] the Vedda in Sri Lanka, and the Nihali of central India, who number about 5000 people. The people of the Hunza valley in Pakistan are another distinct population. They speak Burushaski, a language isolate.

The traditions of different ethnic groups in South Asia have diverged, influenced by external cultures, especially in the northwestern parts of South Asia (where Turkic and Iranian peoples have had much influence) and in the border regions and busy ports, where there are greater levels of contact with external cultures. This is particularly true for many ethnic groups in the northeastern parts of South Asia who are ethnically and culturally related to peoples of the Far East. The largest ethno-linguistic group in South Asia are the Indo-Aryans, numbering around 1 billion, and the largest sub-group are the native speakers of Hindi languages, numbering more than 470 million.

These groups are based solely on a linguistic basis and not on genetic basis. Genetically all south Asians are a mixture of Australasian and Indo-European genetics.

Contents
List of ethnic groups on the basis of language
Indo-Aryan
Iranian peoples
Dardic peoples
Dravidian peoples
Austroasiatic peoples
Tibeto-Burman peoples
Turko-Mongol peoples
Austronesian peoples
Semitic peoples
Tai peoples
European and Eurasian peoples
Afro-Asian
Andamanese and Nicobarese Groups
Linguistically isolate groups
Diaspora
See also
References
External links
List of ethnic groups on the basis of language Edit

Indo-Aryan Edit
People who speak an Indo-Aryan language.

The extent of Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent
Most of the North Indian population is of partial Indo-Aryan descent. The Ra1a1 gene haplotype is found in at least 50% of the populations from North/East India to Central Asia and Eastern Europe.

Assamese people (i.e. the Assamese speakers of the Brahmaputra valley, not to be confused with the multi-ethnic people of Assam)[6]
Awadhi people
Bengali people
Nepali Madhesi or Bihari people
Maithil
Mahuri
Bhumihar people
Bihari Rajputs
Dhivehi people
Gujarati people
Saurashtra people
Hindkowans
Konkani
Marathi people
Muhajir people
Bihari Muslim
Odia people
Paharis
Dogra people
Garhwali people
Nepalese people or Gurkha
Bahun
Chhetri
Damai
Kami
Khas
Kumauni People or Kumaoni people
Punjabi people
Khatri people
Arora
Gujjar
Jatt people
Kamboj/Kamboh
Punjabi Rajput
Rajasthanis
Marwaris
Jat people
Rajput
Meenas
Gujjar
Ahirs
Seraikis
Sinhalese people
Memons
Sindhi people
Tharu people (Nepali)
Iranian peoples Edit
Pashtun people
Baloch people
Irani people (India)
Dardic peoples Edit
The Dardic languages are largely seen as Indo-Aryan, but are sometimes seen as a separate Indo-Iranian branch.

Nuristani people
Chitrali people
Shina people
Kashmiri people
Dravidian peoples Edit
Badagas
Beary
Bhil
Bonda
Brahui people
Dongria Kondha
Gondi people
Irulas
Kannadigas
Khonds
Kodava
Kurukh (Oraon)
Malayalis
Cochin Jews
Mappilas Muslims of North Kerala comprising two groups
a group which has partial Persian/Arab ancestry through traders but speaks Dravidian language Malayalam
a group which includes converts to Islam from north Kerala native Hindus
Muslims of South Kerala which includes converts from native Hindus
Native Hindus
Syrian Malabar Nasrani
Malto people
Tamil people
Indian Tamils
Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan Tamils
Telugu people
Toda people
Tuluvas
Austroasiatic peoples Edit
Munda peoples
Juang people
Kharia people
Korku people
Munda people
Santali people
Sora
Khasi people
Nicobarese people
Tibeto-Burman peoples Edit

Sino-Tibetan languages
Indo-European languages
Dravidian languages
Altaic Languages
3 groups – Japonic (possibly Altaic), Koreanic, (possibly Altaic), and Indochinese languages
Austronesian languages
Austroasiatic languages
Ethnic Assamese (people of Tibeto-Burman pure and mixed ancestry speaking Assamese as their Mother tongue)
Tibetans and Tibetan-speaking speaking peoples
Kuki people
Nepalese people or Gurkha
Bhutias
Bhotiyas
Sherpas
Tibetan Ladakhis
Monpa
Takpa
Tshangla
Sherdukpen
Aka
Miji
Tibetan Muslim
Burig
Baltis
Bodo-Kachari people
Chakma
Nepalese people or Gurkha
Chepang
Gurung
Kirat people
Rai
Limbu
Yakkha
Lepcha people
Magar people
Newar people
Tamang
Thakali
Manipuri or Meithei people
Naga people
Karbi people or Mikir
Thami
Tripuris
Memba
Khowa
Nishi
Turko-Mongol peoples Edit
Turkish Indian
Mughal (Moghul) (A great Sunni Islamic dynasty of Asia which originated in Central Asia)
Chughtai Tartars (Those people who originated in Uzbekistan and fought for Chagatai Khan who was son of Genghis Khan).
Barlas (A Turkic Tribe to which Babur belonged)
Qizilbash
Changezi (Those who were in army of Hulagu Khan)
Hazaras (Turko-Mongol origins, but Iranic language)

Austronesian peoples Edit
Sri Lankan Malays
Semitic peoples Edit
Arabs or mixed Arab and Indo-Aryan or Dravidian
Arabs in Gujarat
Mappila (( Muslims of Malabar(North Kerala)- ancestry to Southern Arab people or Persian traders who intermarried Nair/ Menon /Nambiar (upper class descents) or Thiyya /Mukkuva(lower class descents) of Hindu community of North Kerala))
Sri Lankan Moors ( trace ancestry to Arab traders who settled in Sri Lanka)
Muhajirs
Iraqi biradri A community of Muslims in north India (trace ancestry from Arab tribe of Bani Tamim)
Deccan A community of Muslims in Southern and Northern parts of the Deccan Plateau such as Hyderabadi Muslims
Labbay Arab traders who settled in South India
Rowther Muslims of Tamil Nadu and Kerala who descended from Turkish traders and soldiers from
the expedition of Sindh.

Boras Trace ancestors to Arab traders and Merchants.
Chaush Trace ancestors to traders from Yemen
Indian Jews
Cochin Jews (Malayali Jews)
Bene Israel (Marathi Jews)
Baghdadi Jews (Arab Jews in Bengal)
Bnei Menashe (Mizo and Kuki Jews)
Bene Ephraim (Telugu Jews)
Syrian Malabar Nasranis are descendents of both Hindu and Jewish converts to Christianity
Paradesi Jews (European Jews in India)
Tai peoples Edit
Ahom people
Tai Aiton
Tai Khampti
Tai Phake or Tai Phakial
Tai Turung
Tai Khamyang
European and Eurasian peoples Edit
Anglo-Burmese
Anglo-Indian
Burgher people
Romani people
Afro-Asian Edit
African Pakistani
Sheedis/Siddis, an ethnic community of Black African descent
Siddi
Siddis of Karnataka, an ethnic community of Black African descent
Sri Lanka Kaffirs
Andamanese and Nicobarese Groups Edit
Great Andamanese of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Jangil of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Jarawa of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Onge of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Sentinelese of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Linguistically isolate groups Edit
Hunza people
Kusunda
Nahali (Kalto)
Vedda
Diaspora Edit

Many South Asian ethnic groups and nationalities have substantial diasporas outside of South Asia.

South Asian American
Bangladeshi American
Indian American
Indo-Caribbean American
Nepalese American
Pakistani American
Sri Lankan American
Tamil American
South Asian Canadian
Indo-Canadian
Pakistani Canadian
Nepalese Canadian
Sri Lankan Canadian
Tamil Canadian
Bangladeshi Canadian
British Asian
British Indian
British Pakistani
British Nepalese
British Bangladeshi
British Tamil
Sri Lankans in the United Kingdom
British Indo-Caribbean community
Mauritians in the United Kingdom
Asian-Scots
South Asian Australian
Indian Australian
Pakistani Australian
Nepalese Australian
Sri Lankan Australian
Bangladeshi Australian
Indo Kiwi
Indians in Singapore
Nepalis in Singapore
Malaysian Indian
Tamil Malaysians
Chitty
Nepalese people in Malaysia
Indian Indonesian
Indo-Mauritian
Bihari Mauritian
Indo-Caribbean
Indo-Trinidadian
Indo-Jamaican
Burmese Indians
South Asians in Hong Kong
South Asians in the Philippines
Indians in Germany
Nepalis in Germany
Indian South Africans
Tamil South Africans
Indians in Botswana
Indians in Kenya
Indians in Madagascar
Indo-Mauritian
Indians in Mozambique
Indo-Réunionnaise
Indo-Seychellois
Indians in Tanzania
Indians in Uganda
Indians in Zambia
Indians in Zimbabwe
Indians in Iran
Indians in Thailand
Indians in the United Arab Emirates
Indians in Vietnam
Indians in Barbados
Indians in Belize
Indo-Guyanese
Indo-Grenadians
Indians in Guadeloupe
Indians in Panama
Indians in Belgium
Indian diaspora in France
Indians in Israel
Indians in Italy
Indians in Portugal
Indian community in Spain
Indo-Surinamese
Indo-Fijian
Indians in New Caledonia
See also Punjabi diaspora, Bangladeshi diaspora, Tamil diaspora, Pakistani diaspora, Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora, Nepalese diaspora and Indian diaspora.

Two (or possibly three) other people groups have ethnic and linguistic ties with the region:

Dom people
Romani people
Lom people (who speak a language both related to Indo-Aryan and Armenian)
See also Edit

Languages of South Asia
Genetics and Archaeogenetics of South Asia
Y-DNA haplogroups in South Asian populations
Historical definitions of races in India
Languages of India
Languages of Nepal
Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes
Indian diaspora
Nepalese Diaspora
Pakistani diaspora
Desi
Languages of Nepal
Languages of Pakistan
Ethnic groups in Pakistan
Nepalese people
Assamese people
Sikkimese people
National demographics:

Demographics of Afghanistan
Demographics of Bangladesh
Demographics of Bhutan
Demographics of India
Demographics of Maldives
Demographics of Burma
Demographics of Nepal
Demographics of Pakistan
Demographics of Sri Lanka
References Edit

^ “UN Geoscheme”.
^ According to https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/region/region_sas.html (retrieved on October 2010), 98% of the population of Bangladesh are Bengali (Indo-Aryan), 72% of the population of India are Indo-Aryan and 25% are Dravidian, 44.68% of the population of Pakistan are Punjabi and 14.1% are Sindhi (two Indo-Aryan populations), and 73.8% of the population of Sri Lanka are Sinhalese (Indo-Aryan). Given the fact that India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka represent a huge mass of population (1 508 851 998) compared to Afghanistan, Buthan, Nepal and the Maldives (58 051 568), the majority of the population of South Asia are Indo-Aryan or Dravidian. Moreover, Nepal and Bhutan probably have an important part of their populations which are also Indo-Aryan. Feel free to check.
^ G. Morgenstierne Irano-Dardica. Wiesbaden 1973; Morgenstierne, G. Indo-Iranian frontier languages. (Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning. Publ. ser. B: Skrifter, no. 11, 35, 40) Oslo: H. Aschehoug, 1929 sqq, reprint Oslo 1973,C. Masica The Indo-Aryan languages, New York 1991, p. 21; R.L. Trail and G.R. Cooper, Kalasha Dictionary, Islamabad & High Wycombe 1999 p. xi; The Indo-Aryan languages, edited by George Cardona and Dhanesh Jain. London, New York : Routledge, 2003
^ G.A. Grierson, The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India,Asiatic Society, London, 1906, repr. Delhi 1969, p. 4-6; still repeated in: History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford, 1999
^ D.E. Watters, Notes on Kusunda (a language isolate of Nepal), Kathmandu 2005
^ Yasmin Saikia (2004-11-09). Fragmented Memories. ISBN 0822333732.
External links Edit

Media related to Ethnic groups in India at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Ethnic groups in Pakistan at Wikimedia Commons

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