The Pentagon papers


News Desk
The Untold Story of the Pentagon Papers Co-Conspirators
Speaking publicly for the first time, a historian reveals the crucial role that he and a small band of others played in helping Daniel Ellsberg leak the documents to journalists.
By Eric Lichtblau9:34 A.M.

In 1971, Gar Alperovitz played a vital, clandestine role in making the Pentagon Papers public.Photograph by Sharon Alperovitz
In June of 1971, Gar Alperovitz, a thirty-five-year-old historian, sped through suburban Boston, looking for an out-of-the-way pay phone to use to call a reporter. Alperovitz had never considered himself much of a risk-taker. The father of two ran a small economic think tank focussed on community-building. He had participated in demonstrations against the Vietnam War and rung doorbells with Martin Luther King, Jr., in Boston, as part of an antiwar campaign. But what he was doing on this day, propelled by his desire to end the conflict, could lead to federal prison.
He pulled his old Saab up to a phone booth on the outskirts of Harvard Square, and rang a hotel room nearby. When the reporter picked up, Alperovitz identified himself with the alias he had adopted: “It’s Mr. Boston.” Alperovitz told the journalist to open the door. Waiting in the hallway was a cardboard box, left minutes before by a runner working with Alperovitz. Inside were several hundred pages of the most sought-after documents in the United States—the top-secret Vietnam history known as the Pentagon Papers.
The handoff was one of about a dozen clandestine encounters with journalists that Alperovitz orchestrated over the course of a three-week period, when he and a small group of fellow antiwar activists helped Daniel Ellsberg, a former military analyst at the rand Corporation, elude an F.B.I. manhunt and distribute the Pentagon Papers to nineteen newspapers. Ellsberg, who had smuggled the documents out of rand’s Santa Monica office two years earlier and copied them with the help of a colleague, has long been the public face of the leak. But Ellsberg was aided by about a half-dozen volunteers whose identities have stayed secret for forty-six years, despite the intense interest of the Nixon Administration, thousands of articles, books, documentaries, plays, and now a major film, “The Post,” starring Meryl Streep and Tom Hanks, about the Pentagon Papers. Ellsberg told me that the hidden role of this group was so critical to the operation that he gave them a code name—The Lavender Hill Mob, the name of a 1951 film about a ragtag group of amateur bank robbers. He has referred obliquely to his co-conspirators over the years. But he held back from identifying them because some in the group still feared repercussions.
Now, Alperovitz, who is eighty-one, has agreed to be revealed for the first time. “I’m getting old,” Alperovitz told me, with a laugh. Several other members of the group told me that they still wished to remain anonymous, or declined interview requests. One former Harvard graduate student who also played a major role—she hid the papers in her apartment and organized hideouts for Ellsberg—considered coming forward in this piece, but she ultimately decided not to, after conferring with lawyers. As a green-card holder, she worried that her involvement could lead to her deportation by the Trump Administration. Still, she remains proud of her role. “Those were extraordinary days,” she told me. “It was about questioning the government and being against the government. I was very, very angry about what was happening in Vietnam.”

Alperovitz said that the renewed interest in the Pentagon Papers, brought on by “The Post,” pushed him to finally acknowledge his role, but he also alluded to the “very dangerous” climate under President Trump. A historian and political economist, whose writings have focussed on the dangers of nuclear war and economic inequality, Alperovitz said that Trump’s “outrageous and destabilizing” rhetoric on North Korea compelled him to tell his story and “to suggest to people that it’s time to take action.”
“We were trying to stop the war,” Alperovitz told me, in an interview in his home near Washington. “I’m not heroic in this, but I just felt it important to act,” he said. “There were lots of people dying unnecessarily. There were lots of people who were taking risks to try to end the war, and I was one of them.”
Ellsberg told me that Alperovitz, in particular, was “critical to the way this thing worked out,” organizing the broader distribution of the papers. Ellsberg had initially turned over the documents only to Neil Sheehan, a reporter at the Times, which published the first front-page article on the Pentagon Papers, on June 13, 1971. (The Nixon Administration quickly secured an injunction to halt the Times from continuing to publish the documents.) But it was Alperovitz who devised the strategy of distributing the papers to as many news organizations as possible, including the Washington Post, an approach that later proved to be crucial from both a legal and public-relations standpoint. And it was Alperovitz who came up with the elaborate techniques for slipping the documents to reporters while evading the authorities. “Gar took care of all the cloak-and-dagger stuff,” Ellsberg said.

The danger to the Lavender Hill Mob could hardly be underestimated. Alperovitz “would’ve been indicted in a heartbeat” if he had been identified, Ellsberg said. Senior officials in the Nixon White House had become obsessed with arresting and discrediting Ellsberg and any of his accomplices. They created a group of Nixon campaign operatives, who became known as “the plumbers,” to break into the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist, in what would be a precursor to the Watergate scandal. In a 2010 documentary “The Most Dangerous Man in America: Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers,” Egil Krogh, one of the operatives, says that the Administration was obsessed with identifying who else was involved in the leak. “Did Daniel Ellsberg work alone? Was he working with some other people? Was he part of a conspiracy?” Krogh, who was imprisoned for his role in the Watergate break-in, says in the film. F.B.I. agents—and Nixon’s plumbers—tracked leads from Los Angeles to Paris. The perpetrators, it turned out, met less than a mile from Harvard Square, the epicenter of the liberal, Ivy League élitism that Nixon so detested.

Shortly after surrendering to federal authorities, in June, 1971, for his role in leaking the Pentagon Papers, Daniel Ellsberg spoke to reporters.Photograph by Bettmann / Getty

In early June of 1971, Ellsberg, who had left rand and was working as a senior research fellow at M.I.T., hosted a small dinner party at his home in Cambridge. Ellsberg, who was then forty, had never met Alperovitz but invited him after a colleague said that they shared an intense opposition to the war. The Harvard graduate student was there as well.
Alperovitz had worked in the U.S. government on foreign affairs from 1961 to 1966—first in Congress, then at the State Department—and it was there, as an insider, that his opposition to the war hardened. As a Senate aide, in 1964, Alperovitz worked unsuccessfully to stop what he still calls the “phony” Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which allowed President Lyndon B. Johnson to escalate America’s military involvement in Vietnam. More than anything, the congressional vote confirmed his view that the war was a fraud perpetrated on the American public.
At the dinner, Alperovitz and Ellsberg, a former Marine and Pentagon analyst, talked about Nixon, liberal activism, nuclear weapons, and, of course, Vietnam. The top-secret papers never came up. But, as the party wrapped up and Alperovitz walked to his car, the Harvard graduate student pulled him aside and made a cryptic comment about some sensitive material on Vietnam and “boxes and boxes of papers,” Alperovitz recalled.
A day or two later, the graduate student arranged to meet Alperovitz at a park, she told me in an interview. She explained to Alperovitz that Ellsberg had entrusted her with thousands of pages of the documents, and that she had stashed them in cupboards in the pantry of her small apartment. Ellsberg had given copies of the papers to a Times reporter several months earlier, but had not heard from him since. She and Ellsberg didn’t know when the newspaper might run the story, or if it even intended to do so, and were eager to distribute more of the papers to other news outlets. “I needed help to do this work,” the woman told me, and Alperovitz seemed like “exactly the right person.”
When she asked Alperovitz if he would help, he immediately agreed. Decades later, Alperovitz said that his eagerness, despite the obvious risks, still puzzles him. “I’m a very cautious person, but I didn’t blink—which I don’t understand,” he told me. “I’m surprised I didn’t just say, ‘Whoops, I’m busy tomorrow.’ It was out of character.”
In a subsequent meeting with Ellsberg, Alperovitz mapped out a strategy. Ellsberg, who had tried to leak the secret papers to members of Congress but had been rebuffed, wanted to get all seven thousand pages of the papers out at once, if not in the Times then in the Washington Post or somewhere else. “My nightmare was that the F.B.I. would catch me and capture all the papers first,” Ellsberg recalled. He even considered using the Harvard Crimson’s presses to print the documents himself. Alperovitz talked him out of it. “I said to Dan, ‘Look, this is seven thousand pages of material, you’ll get one story, maybe two,’ ” Alperovitz said. “If you really want to get this out to the public, you’ve got to break it up and keep the story going.”

To Ellsberg’s surprise, the Times ran its first story on the papers several days later. The Nixon Administration quickly secured an injunction to halt publication. By then, Alperovitz was already working the pay phones around Cambridge and Somerville to contact a reporter from the Post and get more coverage. Days later, with Alperovitz acting as an intermediary, Ellsberg met with a Post reporter in a local motel room and gave him the entire secret report. After the reporter left, Ellsberg and his wife, who were hiding out in the motel, saw on television that F.B.I. agents had descended on their home to question him. For the next two weeks, the Ellsbergs remained holed up, with the Harvard graduate student taking the lead in finding new places to stash them. “I moved them every few days,” she recalled. “I’d call friends and say, ‘I need your apartment for two days, and I just want you to go somewhere else. Just don’t ask me any questions.’ ” Each time the couple moved, she crammed boxes of the secret history into her small Volkswagen and moved them along with the Ellsbergs.
The one time that Ellsberg knew whose apartment he was using, he said, was during weekend that he spent in Cambridge with a friend, Jeffrey Race, a fellow Vietnam veteran. Race recalled watching a television news report with his fiancée about the F.B.I. searching for Ellsberg. “They can’t find him,” Race told me, “and we joked that, ‘Hey, he’s lying right here in his underwear on the floor taking a nap in front of the TV.’ ”
It was at Race’s apartment that Ellsberg had his closest brush with arrest. At Ellsberg’s request, from a pay phone outside of Race’s apartment, Alperovitz called a friend of Ellsberg’s in Los Angeles to arrange a way for him to speak with his children and let them know that he was all right. As Ellsberg watched from the window, Alperovitz hung up and walked away. Minutes later, police cars converged around the phone booth. Ellsberg guessed that the F.B.I. must have been tapping his Los Angeles friend’s phone, or perhaps the pay phone, in their effort to find him. “We ducked behind the window,” Ellsberg recalled. “I’m thinking, Oh my God!” He and his wife left that same night for a different hiding place.
Alperovitz asked the administrator of the Cambridge Institute, the think tank he ran, to vacate her apartment for the Ellsbergs for several days. “It was a very matter-of-fact thing,” the administrator, Nancy Lyons, who is now retired and living in Concord, Massachusetts, said in an interview. She immediately agreed—she saw it as an opportunity to be involved in something larger than herself. “I might have just been naïve, but I didn’t have any hesitation.” The one concern she had, she told me, was that she had waited a long time to get the rent-controlled apartment, and she didn’t want to lose it if someone found out. (No one did.)
Alperovitz’s primary task was devising how to distribute the papers to as many news organizations as possible. Ellsberg usually told Alperovitz which newspapers to contact—the Boston Globe, the St. Louis Post Dispatch, the Los Angeles Times, the Christian Science Monitor, and the Detroit Free Press, among them—but he left it to Alperovitz to figure out the logistics.
Alperovitz told me that he improvised the elaborate handoffs. “I invented this stuff as I went along,” he said. “I don’t know how.” Getting journalists interested in the papers, then the most sought after documents in the United States, was easy. He would call a newspaper’s city desk from a pay phone, identify himself as Mr. Boston­—a code name that got a few references in “The Post”—and then offer to share some of the papers. “They were very happy to take them. Everyone wanted to be in on it,” he said.
The trickier part was handing off hundreds of pages of documents without being detected. Alperovitz and the Harvard graduate student recruited a handful of college students—all ardently opposed to the war—to help not only with mundane tasks, like getting the Ellsbergs’ groceries, but also to act as runners who delivered the papers.

During the frantic three weeks it took to distribute the documents, Alperovitz typically didn’t have time to even read all the papers before parcelling them out to reporters. He simply grabbed a few hundred pages, boxed them up, and sent the runners on their way. Alperovitz usually found out what was in each stack only when he read the news stories. The pace was so hectic that he and other participants have trouble remembering the exact sequence today. Alperovitz can’t remember, for instance, which reporter he called at the Cambridge hotel with instructions for finding the papers in the hallway. The former Harvard graduate student recalls a nighttime handoff of papers at an acquaintance’s home, but the details are hazy.
There were also furtive meetings at Boston’s Logan Airport, chosen by Alperovitz because it was a convenient place for out-of-town reporters to blend in. One student helping with the operation was dispatched to Logan to meet a Newsday reporter whom Alperovitz had summoned from Washington. Posing this time as Sam Adams, Alperovitz had the airport page the reporter over the public-address system; the student then handed the reporter a note with directions to find a green plastic shopping bag on a seat in the terminal. Inside


Sugar. 2017

UKRAINE: Largest sugar producer buys ag insurance company: Astarta-Kyiv, Ukraine’s largest agricultural holding, has purchased the Ukrainian agrarian insurance company worth UAH10.5 million (US$394,181), the National Association of Sugar Producers of Ukraine reports, according to Interfax-Ukraine. The holding said in its financial statements over January-September 2017 posted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange: “The acquisition of 100% of the shares of the insurer has been completed this year”. The Ukrainian Agro-Insurance has been operating on the market since 1995. This is one of the four insurance companies in Ukraine that acted as the founders of the Agrarian Insurance Pool. The insurance company completed 2016 with a net profit amounting to UAH10.2 million, while in 2015 – its net loss reached UAH33.4 million. The company’s assets over the year increased by 24% to UAH58 million, equity capital grew by 25% to UAH 51 million. The company’s authorized capital totals UAH12 million. Astarta-Kyiv is one of Ukraine’s largest vertically integrated agricultural holding specializing in sugar and agricultural production. Its production share totals about 25%, the land bank is 245,000 hectares. The company also produces milk and processing soybeans. The company operates in Poltava, Vinnytsia, Khmelnytsky, Ternopil, Zhytomyr, Chernihiv, Cherkasy and Kharkiv regions.

BRAZIL: RenovaBio should prompt new wave of M&A in sugarcane sector: Brazil’s sugarcane industry is expected to go through an intense wave of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) once RenovaBio, a governmental program to encourage use of biofuels in the country, is launched, says Alexandre Figliolino, partner at MB Agro consultancy firm, according to Brazil’s Infomoney news website. “If RenovaBio comes through, I have no doubt that we will have a consolidation movement in the sugar and ethanol sector as we have never seen before,” said Figliolino, during this week’s XP Datagro’s Agrifinance Brazil conference. RenovaBio aims to expand biofuel production in Brazil by adopting predictable rules for development of the sector, in line with economic, social and environmental sustainability. The program also aims to contribute to Brazil’s goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. According to Figliolino, the sugarcane industry is experiencing five years of stagnation, and has a “huge disparity” in terms of operational efficiency of mills, opening up a scenario in which the most efficient tend to acquire others. Currently, there is a process of “silent consolidation” in the sector, according to Figliolino, in which small acquisitions are occurring with mills taking over cane fields of neighboring producers. Guilherme Nastari, director at Datagro consultancy firm, says RenovaBio’s approval may be the trigger for the next big wave of production in the industry. Felipe Vicchiato, financial director of São Martinho mill, said RenovaBio’s launch may also encourage more companies in the industry to seek initial public offerings (IPO).

BRAZIL: INTL FCStone sees centre-south cane crush at 587.5 million tonnes: Consultancy firm INTL FCStone estimates that mills in Brazil’s centre-south will crush 587.5 million tonnes of sugarcane in the 2018/19 harvest, up 0.6% from the the 2016/17 season forecast (583.8 million tonnes), according to Brazil’s Estadão Conteúdo. An improvement in weather conditions and a higher rate of sugarcane field renewal in 2015 and 2016 should contribute to the slight increase in cane crush next season. The 2018/19 harvest officially begins in April 2018. “As for the harvested area, as opposed to the 1.5% decline projected for 2017/18, we expect it to advance 0.3% in the next harvest. This slight increase comes as a result of less reserved areas for sugarcane reforestation,” said analyst João Paulo Botelho. About 8.03 million hectares of sugarcane are expected to be harvested in the region in 2018/19. “It should be noted that greater humidity resulting from a less dry climate tends to reduce the average ATR (Total Recoverable Sugar) of the crops,” he said. INTL FCStone expects ATR at 135.4 kg/tonne, down 0.5% from the projection for the current season. The consultancy firm also estimates that 56% of the sugarcane will be destined to ethanol production in 2018/19, up from 53.4% this year. This should contribute to an increase of 5.1% in ethanol production, to 26.3 billion litres. Hydrous ethanol output should total 15.4 billion litres in 2018/19, up 8.9% from the current year, while anhydrous ethanol production would remain stable. The group’s estimate for sugar production is at 33.3 million tonnes, down 5.5% from 2017/18.

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United Space Alliance: This company provides major support to NASA for various projects, such as the space shuttle. One of its projects is to create Workflow Automation System (WAS), an application designed to manage NASA and other third-party projects. The setup uses a central Oracle database as a repository for information. Python was chosen over languages such as Java and C++ because it provides dynamic typing and pseudo-code–like syntax and it has an interpreter. The result is that the

Radical candor

d Boss
Radical Candor — The Surprising Secret to Being a Good Boss

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Kim Scott, co-founder of Candor, Inc., has built her career around a simple goal: Creating bullshit-free zones where people love their work and working together. She first tried it at her own software startup. Then, as a long-time director at Google, she studied how the company’s leaders created an environment where the joy that people took in their work felt almost tangible. As a faculty member at Apple University, Scott learned how Apple takes a different path but is equally committed to creating the conditions where people can do the best work of their careers and love doing it. Along the way, she managed a lot of teams in various states of euphoria and panic. And while she did a lot right, she’d be the first to admit everything she did wrong.

The good news is that Scott, now an acclaimed advisor for companies like Twitter, Shyp, Rolltape, and Qualtrics, has spent years distilling her experiences into some simple ideas you can use to help the people who work for you love their jobs and do great work. “At Google, I was really curious — did creating such a great work environment require having the world’s greatest business model? The answer is no. Luckily, there are some things that any of us can do, even before the profits start rolling in.”

The single most important thing a boss can do, Scott has learned, is focus on guidance: giving it, receiving it, and encouraging it. Guidance, which is fundamentally just praise and criticism, is usually called “feedback,” but feedback is screechy and makes us want to put our hands over our ears. Guidance is something most of us long for.

At First Round’s recent CEO Summit, Scott shared a simple tool for ensuring that your team gets the right kind of guidance — a tool she calls ‘radical candor.’

What Is Radical Candor?

To illustrate radical candor in action, Scott shared story about a time her boss criticized her. “I had just joined Google and gave a presentation to the founders and the CEO about how the AdSense business was doing. I walked in feeling a little nervous, but happily the business was on fire. When we told Larry, Sergey and Eric how many publishers we had added over the previous months, Eric almost fell off his chair and asked what resources they could give us to help continue this amazing success. So… I sort of felt like the meeting went okay.”

But after the meeting, Scott’s boss, Sheryl Sandberg, suggested they take a walk together. She talked about the things she’d liked about the presentation and how impressed she was with the success the team was having — yet Scott could feel a “but” coming. “Finally she said, ‘But you said um a lot.’ And I thought, ‘Oh, no big deal. I know, I do that. But who cared if I said um when I had the tiger by the tail?’”

Sandberg pushed forward, asking whether Scott’s ums were the result of nervousness. She even suggested that Google could hire a speaking coach to help. Still, Scott brushed off the concern; it didn’t seem like an important issue. “Finally, Sheryl said, ‘You know, Kim, I can tell I’m not really getting through to you. I’m going to have to be clearer here. When you say um every third word, it makes you sound stupid.’”

“Now, that got my attention!” Scott says.

For all of us raised in a culture that preaches, “If you can’t say something nice…”, that criticism might not sound so nice. But Scott knows now that it was the kindest thing Sandberg could have done for her. “If she hadn’t said it just that way, I would’ve kept blowing her off. I wouldn’t have addressed the problem. And what a silly thing to let trip you up.” (Incidentally, she did work with that speaking coach, and kicked her um habit handily.) In the years since, Scott has worked to operationalize what it was that made Sandberg such a great boss.

It sounds so simple to say that bosses need to tell employees when they’re screwing up. But it very rarely happens.
To help teach radical candor — this all-important but often neglected skill — to her own teams, Scott boiled it down to a simple framework: Picture a basic graph divided into four quadrants. If the vertical axis is caring personally and the horizontal axis is challenging directly, you want your feedback to fall in the upper right-hand quadrant. That’s where radical candor lies.

Rules for radicals …Alinsky Wikipedia

1@I do not expect the storm to pass, I learned to walk in the rain.
2@2 maths
Rules for Radicals
Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals is a 1971 book by community activist and writer Saul D. Alinsky about how to successfully run a movement for change. It was the last book that Alinsky wrote and was published shortly before his death in 1972. His goal for the Rules for Radicals was to create a guide for future community organizers to use in uniting low-income communities, or “Have-Nots”, in order for them to gain social, political, legal, and economic power.[1] Within it, Alinsky compiled the lessons he had learned throughout his experiences of community organizing from 1939–1971 and targeted these lessons at the current, new generation of radicals.[2]

Rules for Radicals
Rules for Radicals.png
Saul Alinsky
United States
Grassroots, community organizing
Random House
Publication date
Media type
Print (Hardcover and Paperback)
196 pp
Dewey Decimal
LC Class
HN65 .A675
Divided into ten chapters, Rules for Radicals provides 10 lessons on how a community organizer can accomplish the goal of successfully uniting people into an active grassroots organization with the power to effect change on a variety of issues. Though targeted at community organization, these chapters also touch on other issues that range from ethics, education, communication, and symbol construction and political philosophy.[3]

Though published for the new generation of counterculture-era organizers in 1971, Alinsky’s principles have been successfully applied by numerous government, labor, community, and congregation-based organizations, and the main themes of his organizational methods that were elucidated upon in Rules for Radicals have been recurring elements in political campaigns in recent years.

Inspiration Edit

The inspiration for Rules for Radicals was drawn from Alinsky’s personal experience as a community organizer.[1] It was also taken from the lessons he learned from his University of Chicago professor, Robert Park, who saw communities as “reflections of the larger processes of an urban society”.[3] The methods Alinsky developed and practiced were described in his book as a guide on future community organizing for the new generation of radicals emerging from the 1960s.[3][4]

Alinsky believed in collective action as a result of the work he did with the C.I.O. and the Institute for Juvenile Research in Chicago where he first began to develop his own, distinct method of community organizing. Additionally, his late work with the Citizens Action Program (CAP) provided some of his most whole and conclusive practices in organizing through the empowerment of the poor, though not well-known. Alinsky saw community structure and the impoverished and the importance of their empowerment as elements of community activism and used both as tools to create powerful, active organizations.[5] He also used shared social problems as external antagonists to “heighten local awareness of similarities among residents and their shared differences with outsiders”.[3] Ironically, this was one of Alinsky’s most powerful tools in community organizing; to bring a collective together, he would bring to light an issue that would stir up conflict with some agency to unite the group. This provided an organization with a specific “villain” to confront and made direct action easier to implement. These tactics as a result of decades of organizing efforts, along with many other lessons, were poured into Rules for Radicals to create the guidebook for community organization.[2]

Themes Edit

Rules for Radicals has various themes. Among them is his use of symbol construction to strengthen the unity within an organization.[3] He would draw on loyalty to a particular church or religious affiliation to create a structured organization with which to operate. The reason being that symbols by which communities could identify themselves created structured organizations that were easier to mobilize in implementing direct action. Once the community was united behind a common symbol, Alinsky would find a common enemy for the community to be united against.

The use of common enemy against a community was another theme of Rules for Radicals, as a uniting element in communities.[6]

Alinsky would find an external antagonist to turn into a “common enemy” for the community within which he was operating. Often, this would be a local politician or agency that had some involvement with activity concerning the community. Once the enemy was established, the community would come together in opposition of it. This management of conflict heightened awareness within the community as to the similarities its members shared as well as what differentiated them from those outside of their organization.[3] The use of conflict also allowed for the goal of the group to be clearly defined. With an established external antagonist, the community’s goal would be to defeat that enemy.[3]

Symbol construction helped to promote structured organization, which allowed for nonviolent conflict through another element in Alinsky’s teaching, direct action. Direct action created conflict situations that further established the unity of the community and promoted the accomplishment of achieving the community’s goal of defeating their common enemy.[2] It also brought issues the community was battling to the public eye. Alinsky encouraged over-the-top public demonstrations throughout Rules for Radicals that could not be ignored, and these tactics enabled his organization to progress their goals faster than through normal bureaucratic processes.[3]

Lastly, the main theme throughout Rules for Radicals and Alinsky’s work was empowerment of the poor.[5] Alinsky used symbol construction and nonviolent conflict to create a structured organization with a clearly defined goal that could take direct action against a common enemy. At this point, Alinsky would withdraw from the organization to allow their progress to be powered by the community itself.[3] This empowered the organizations to create change.[2]

The Rules Edit
“Power is not only what you have but what the enemy thinks you have.”
“Never go outside the expertise of your people.”
“Whenever possible go outside the expertise of the enemy.”
“Make the enemy live up to its own book of rules.”
“Ridicule is man’s most potent weapon.”
“A good tactic is one your people enjoy.”
“A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag.”
“Keep the pressure on.”
“The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself.”
“The major premise for tactics is the development of operations that will maintain a constant pressure upon the opposition.”
“If you push a negative hard and deep enough it will break through into its counterside”
“The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative.”
“Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it.”
Criticisms Edit

Alinsky received criticism for the methods and ideas he presented. Robert Pruger and Harry Specht noted that much of his instruction has only been effective in urban, low-income areas.[7] Pruger and Specht also criticized his broad statement that Rules for Radicals is a tool for organizing all low-income people. Further, Alinsky’s use of artificially stimulated conflict has been criticized for its ineffectiveness in areas that thrive on unity.[7] According to Judith Ann Trolander, in several Chicago areas in which he worked, his use of conflict backfired and the community was unable to achieve the policy adjustments they were seeking.[2]

Much of the philosophy of community organization found in Rules for Radicals has also come under question as being overly ideological. Alinsky believed in allowing the community to determine its exact goal. He would produce an enemy for them to conflict with, but the purpose of the conflict was ultimately left up to the community. This idea has been criticized due to the conflicting opinions that can often be present within a group.[7] Alinsky’s belief that an organization can create a goal to accomplish is viewed as highly optimistic and contradictory to his creation of an external antagonist. By producing a common enemy, Alinsky is creating a goal for the community, the defeat of that enemy. To say that the community will create their own goal seems backwards considering Alinsky creates the goal of defeating the enemy. Thus, his belief can be seen as too ideological and contradictory because the organization may turn the goal of defeating the common enemy he produced into their main purpose.[7]

Alinsky-style organizing has also been criticized as ineffective, if not destructive to, communities and public perceptions of community organizing for its: 1) hardened focus upon the expertise of an outsider who views communities as muddled sheep waiting to be organized (and not capable groups with existing social-psychological networks and ties), 2) gendered authoritarianism that fetishizes conflict as panacea, which effectively sidelines feminist perspectives and tactics as ineffective, and 3) a overly simplistic focus on perceptions of power. Stall and Stoecker describe these issues between the public and private split in community organizing, and gendered organizing tactics as the difference between community organizing (Alinsky/masculinist) and organizing community (feminist).[8]

Legacy Edit

The scope of influence for Rules for Radicals is a far-reaching one as it is a compilation of the tactics of Alinsky. It has been influential for policymaking and organization for various communities and agency groups, and has influenced politicians and activists educated by Alinsky and the IAF, and other grassroots movements.

Direct impact Edit
After Alinsky died in California in 1972, his influence helped spawn other organizations and policy changes. Rules for Radicals was a direct influence that helped to form the United Neighborhood Organization in the early 1980s.[3] Its founders Greg Galluzzo, Mary Gonzales, and Pater Martinez were all students of Alinsky.[3] The work of UNO helped to improve the hygiene, sanitation, and education in southeastern Chicago.[3] Additionally, the founders of Organization of the North East in Chicago during the 1970s applied Alinsky’s principles to organize multiethnic neighborhoods in order to gain greater political representation.[3]

Rules for Radicals have been dispersed by Alinsky’s students who undertook their own community organizing endeavors. Students of Alinsky’s such as Edward T. Chambers used Rules for Radicals to help form the Industrial Areas Foundation, the Queens Citizens Organization, and the Communities Organized for Public Service. Another student of Alinsky’s, Ernest Cortez, rose to prominence in the late 1970s in San Antonio while organizing Hispanic neighborhoods. His use of congregation-based organizing received much acclaim as a popular method of Alinsky’s by utilizing “preexisting solidary neighborhood elements, especially church groups, so that the constituent units are organizations, not individuals.”[5] This congregation-based organizing and symbol construction was taught to him by Edward Chambers and the IAF during his time studying under both.

The methods and teachings of Rules for Radicals have also been linked to the Mid-America Institute, the National People’s Action, the National Training and Information Center, the Pacific Institute for Community Organizations, and the Community Service Organization.[5]

Later influence Edit
The methods from Rules for Radicals have been seen in modern American politics. The use of congregation-based organizing has been linked to Jesse Jackson when he was organizing his own political campaign.[9]

The book was disseminated by the Tea Party conservative group FreedomWorks during Dick Armey’s tenure as chairman.[10][11]

Publication data Edit

Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals (1971) Random House, ISBN 0394443411; Vintage books paperback: ISBN 0679721134
References Edit

^ a b Rules for Radicals, by Saul Alinsky
^ a b c d e Trolander, Judith Ann (1982). “Social Change: Settlement Houses and Saul Alinsky, 1939–1965”. Social Service Review. University of Chicago Press. 56 (3): 346–65. ISSN 1537-5404. JSTOR 30011558 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Reitzes, Donald C.; Reitzes, Dietrich C. (1987). “Alinsky in the 1980s: Two Contemporary Chicago Community Organizations”. The Sociological Quarterly. Midwest Sociological Society. 28 (2): 265–83. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1987.tb00294.x. ISSN 1533-8525. JSTOR 4121434 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
^ “Playboy Interview: Saul Alinsky”. Playboy Magazine. March 1972.
^ a b c d McCarthy, John D. (1989). “The Alinsky Legacy: Alive and Kicking. by Donald C. Reitzes, Dietrich C. Reitzes”. Contemporary Sociology. American Sociological Association. 18 (1): 46–7. ISSN 1939-8638. JSTOR 2071926 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
^ Marshall, Dale Rogers (1976). “Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals by Saul D. Alinsky; How People Get Power: Organizing Oppressed Communities for Action by Si Kahn; Action for a Change: A Student’s Manual for Public Interest Organizing by Ralph Nader, Donald Ross; Winning Elections: A Handbook in Participatory Politics by Dick Simpson; Political Action: A Practical Guide to Movement Politics by Michael Walzer”. The American Political Science Review. American Political Science Association. 70 (2): 620–3. doi:10.2307/1959680. ISSN 1537-5943. JSTOR 1959680 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
^ a b c d Pruger, Robert; Harry Specht (June 1969). “Assessing Theoretical Models of Community Organization Practice: Alinsky as a Case in Point”. Social Service Review. 43 (2): 123. doi:10.1086/642363. JSTOR 30020552.
^ Stall, Susan, & Stoecker, Randy. (1997). “Community Organizing or Organizing Community? Gender and the Crafts of Empowerment.” COMM-ORG Papers.
^ Swarts, Heidi (2011). “Drawing New Symbolic Boundaries Over Old Social Boundaries: Forging Social Movement Unity in Congregation-Based Community Organizing”. Sociological Perspectives. Sage Publications. 54 (3): 453–77. doi:10.1525/sop.2011.54.3.453. ISSN 1533-8673. JSTOR 10.1525/sop.2011.54.3.453 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (help)).
^ Knickerbocker, Brad (January 28, 2012). “Who is Saul Alinsky, and why is Newt Gingrich so obsessed with him?”. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
^ Vogel, Kenneth P. (October 22, 2010). “Right loves to hate, imitate Alinsky”. Politico. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
Further reading Edit

Hedgbeth, Jeff (2012). Rules for Radicals Defeated. CreateSpace. ISBN 1475192037. OCLC 913210254.
External links Edit

Rules for Radicals at Goodreads
Last edited 18 days ago by an anonymous user

Sugar crises in Pakistan

Solving Pakistan’s Sugar Crisis

World raw sugar futures hit a 28-year high of 23.52 cents a pound last week as the fears of a bad sugarcane harvest grew stronger. The key background factor is the continuing scarce supply scenario in the global market because of weather factors, particularly in India, the second largest producer of sugarcane, according to the Wall Street Journal. While India is dealing with too little monsoon rain, the largest sugar producer Brazil is being hurt by too much rain.

At 4.89 million tons of annual sugar production, Pakistan is the tenth largest sugar producer in the world, and yet it has to import sugar, exposing it to the effects of sugar shortages and rising prices in the world. Pakistanis consume over 25 Kg of sugar per person versus India’s 20Kg. Sugar cost Rs 25 per Kg (30 US cents) at the start of 2009 and now costs more than Rs 50, says independent economic analyst A.B. Shahid. This doubling of the price is likely to further enrich the large number of sugar producing politicians who are already rich and powerful.

The most pessimistic estimates show a 23 percent decline in sugar crop production this year. While last year Pakistan produced 4.7 million tons, farmers are on track to produce 3.2 million tons this year. That means a severe shortfall as annual national consumption is 4.2 million tons.

Both sugar production and per capita consumption as well as overall calorie intake have been rising in Pakistan. In the last four decades, per capita calorie intake in Pakistan has grown from 1750-2450 (kilo)calories with an average annual growth rate of 0.90%. Nevertheless, 20% of Pakistan’s population is still undernourished. Sugar consumption has been showing an increasing trend for the last 15 years. It has increased from 2.89 million tons in 1995-96 to 3.95 million tons in 2005-06. One of the many reasons behind this increase is rise in the total population of the country, which has reached 170 million. The per capita sugar consumption data shows that it has also risen from 22.2 kg in 1995 to 25.8 kg in 2004-05. For 2008-09, the overall sugar consumption is forecast at over 4 million tons, which is less than the target production. But the government is importing about 300,000 tons of sugar to ensure availability of sufficient stock to cover any shortfalls from the usual smuggling to Afghanistan which remains a fact of life in Pakistan.

In addition to relatively large per capita sugar consumption, Pakistanis also consume significantly higher amounts of meat, poultry and milk products than other South Asian nations, getting more protein and almost half their daily, per capita calorie intake from non-food-grain sources.

The fact that Pakistanis have a sweet tooth is not lost on the nation’s ruling elite, particularly the powerful political families and the Pakistani military. While the military owns Fauji sugar mills, more than 50% of the sugar in Pakistan is produced in sugar mills owned by the most powerful politicians of all major parties and their families.

Multiple sources indicate that the mills owned by President Asif Ali Zardari’s family and the ruling PPP leaders include Ansari Sugar Mills, Mirza Sugar Mills, Pangrio Sugar Mills, Sakrand Sugar Mills and Kiran Sugar Mills. Ashraf Sugar mills is owned by PPP leader and incumbent ZTBL President Ch Zaka Ashraf.

The media reports also indicate Kamalia Sugar Mills and Layyah Sugar Mills are owned by PML-N leaders. Former minister Abbas Sarfaraz is the owner of five out of six sugar mills in the NWFP. Nasrullah Khan Dareshak owns Indus Sugar Mills while Jahangir Khan Tareen has two sugar mills; JDW Sugar Mills and United Sugar Mills. PML-Q leader Anwar Cheema owns National Sugar Mills while Chaudhrys family is or was the owner of Pahrianwali Sugar Mills as it is being heard that they have sold the said mills. Senator Haroon Akhtar Khan owns Tandianwala Sugar Mills while Pattoki Sugar Mills is owned by Mian Mohammad Azhar, former Governor Punjab. PML-F leader Makhdoom Ahmad Mehmood owns Jamaldin Wali Sugar Mills. Chaudhry Muneer owns two mills in Rahimyar Khan district and Ch Pervaiz Elahi and former Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Khusro Bakhtiar have shares in these mills.

Among other basic food commodities, per million population wheat consumption in Pakistan is 115,000 metric tons versus 63,000 metric tons in India, according to published data.

According to the FAO, the average dairy consumption of the developing countries is still very low (45 kg of all dairy products in liquid milk equivalent), compared with the average of 220 kg in the industrial countries. Few developing countries have per capita consumption exceeding 150 kg (Argentina, Uruguay and some pastoral countries in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Africa). Among the most populous countries, only Pakistan, at 153 kg per capita, has such a level. In South Asia, where milk and dairy products are preferred foods, India has only 64 kg and Bangladesh 14 kg. East Asia has only 10 kg.

While it remains very low by world standards, meat and poultry consumption has also increased significantly in Pakistan over the last decade. Per capita availability of eggs went from 23 in 1991 to 43 in 2005, according to research by N. Daghir. Per capita meat consumption in Pakistan now stands at 12.4 Kg versus India’s 4.6 Kg.

In spite of South Asia’s growing horticulture industry, the intake of fruits and vegetables in India and Pakistan is surprisingly low at less than 100 grams per day per capita, according to the World Health Organization. This figure is far lower than the 300 grams of fruits and vegetables per person in Australia, EU and the US.

In spite of the fact that there is about 22% malnutrition in Pakistan, the average per capita calorie intake of about 2500 calories is within normal range. But the nutritional balance necessary for good health appears to be lacking in Pakistanis’ dietary habits. One way to alleviate the sugar crisis in Pakistan is to reduce sugar consumption and substitute it with greater intake of fruits and vegetables. There is an urgent need for better health and nutritional education through strong public-private partnership to promote healthier eating in Pakistan.

Here is a video clip about sugar crisis:

Tcp sugar 2009

TCP blames minister for sugar crisis
ISLAMABAD, Sept 8 In what appears to be a new twist in the sugar crisis, officials of the Trading Corporation of Pakistan on Tuesday absolved themselves of responsibility and instead passed the buck to the minister for industries, who they said, had stopped the import of sugar on the plea that the country had enough stocks to meet the demand.

Through a letter sent on May 29 by Federal Minister for Industries Manzoor Wattoo, via the commerce ministry, the TCP was asked to stop import of sugar with immediate effect, although prices had already started rising in the international market.

“There is enough stock of sugar in the country as reported by the Pakistan Sugar Mills Association. Therefore, there is no requirement to import sugar and spending foreign exchange,” the letter by Mr Wattoo said.

The contents of the letter were read out before the National Assembly Standing Committee, headed by its Chairman Khurram Dastgir Khan.

Commerce Minister Amin Fahim also attended the meeting along with 11 other members of the committee.

The prime minister will hold a special meeting on the sugar crisis on Wednesday. The four chief ministers have been invited to the deliberations.

In reply to questions of the committee, TCP Chairman Saeed Ahmed Khan said as directed by the economic coordination committee of the cabinet in February, the corporation floated tenders for import of 125,000 tons of sugar.

Mr Khan admitted that further import of sugar was stopped following receipt of the letter from the ministry.

He said that on a directive by the ECC on Aug 11, a tender for the remaining sugar was floated on Aug 29.

He said by Sept 30, the total quantity of imported sugar would be 200,000 tons.

Many participants questioned the contents of the statement issued by the National Assembly secretariat, which according to them mostly misquoted officials.

According to the statement, the standing committee has censured the TCP for aggravating the sugar crisis through a grievous delay in importing required sugar stocks, inflicting sever hardship on poor Pakistanis and causing a loss of millions to the government.

“The TCP was complicit in collusion between powerful government figures, hoarders and mill owners to fleece poor Pakistanis,” the statement said.

Talking to Dawn, the TCP chairman denied all observations made in the statement and said nothing like this had been discussed during the meeting.

He claimed that the meeting had expressed satisfaction with the information given by the corporation.

According to the statement, the committee reprimanded the TCP for a two-month delay in finalising a tender for 50,000 tons that the TCP had opened in April.

The commerce secretary ascribed responsibility for delay on a price verification committee comprising him and the secretaries of the industries and food ministries.

Commerce Secretary Suleman Ghani also questioned the contents attributed to him in the statement.

“I never said anything like this during the meeting,” he told Dawn.

He said the imported sugar had nothing to do with the domestic market as it was meant for buffer stock. He said no price committee existed at present.

On a directive of the ministry of industries the import of sugar had been deferred for weeks. However, he claimed, no additional cost incurred to the kitty owing to the delay in imports.

The TCP informed the committee that it had received 83,283 tons of sugar out of a total of 200,000 tons ordered from abroad.

Mr Khan said that the TCP supply to Utility Stores from its domestic purchases would be enough till the next crushing season.

He said that the TCP purchased 642,000 tons of sugar between Nov 2007 and Oct 2008 from local sugar millers at prices varying between Rs20 and Rs32 per kg.

He said with the carrying cost, the TCP sugar cost edged up to Rs37.75 a kg last month, which did not include the transportation cost negating government claims of giving huge subsidy on sugar sale to consumers.

He said domestic reserves would be 50,000 tons after the release of stocks to Utility Stores by Sept 30.

He said the TCP would release 30,000 tones next month to Utility Stores.

Several members pointed out that the government’s efforts to provide sugar at a discount had failed dismally.

Mewar state…krishna

A real Rajput princess in a time of war
altParvez Mahmood TFT Issue: 16 Feb 2018
Parvez Mahmood writes about Princess Krishna Kumari: a tale of conflict and disempowerment of women – a far cry
from Bollywood depictions



A real Rajput princess in a time of war
A Rajput royal procession


The old name of ‘Mewar state’ has become familiar with the recently released popular Indian film Padmaavat, associated with the siege of Chittorgarh Fort by Alauddin Khilji in August 1303.That story, as has been repeated by commentators time and again, is based not on authentic history but on a poem written in 1540 AD by Awadhi language Sufi poet Malik Muhammad Jayasi. It also gives me an opportunity to write the tragic story of a 16-year-old Mewari princess that occurred in July 1810 during an age of chaos and breakdown of central authority in Central India.

I must forewarn that any reading of the history of the region in the late 18th and early 19th centuries is perplexing because of an abundance of fluid states, a host of shifting alliances and a swarm of scheming local rulers. I will therefore stick to the very essentials of the story, lest the narrative becomes unreadable. The story that I narrate here revolves around the neighbouring princely states of Mewar, Marwar and Amber with their capitals at Udaipur, Jodhpur and Jaipur respectively, and I will refer to them by the latter, comparatively familiar and modern names.

Critics accuse film ‘Padmaavat’ of glorifying the self-immolation of Rajput women
Udaipur, encompassing Chittorgarh Fort and Udaipur city, held a unique position amongst the states of Rajputana. It was the only Rajput state that had accepted the suzerainty of the Mughals without having to marry a princess of theirs to a Mughal royal.

On the other hand, the princesses of jaipur and Jodhpur were frequently given in marriage to the Mughals. Mariam-uz-Zamani Begum (often associated with the figure of Jodha Bai), the powerful wife of Emperor Akbar and mother of Emperor Jahangir, is believed have been from Jaipur. The first wife of Jahangir, Manbhawati Bai, the mother of his eldest son Khusrau, too, was a princess of Jaipur. Similarly another wife of Jahangir, the mother of Emperor Shah Jahan, was Jagat Gosain, renamed as Bilqis Makani at the Mughal imperial court, from the royal family of Jodhpur. The last Rajput princess linked matrimonially to a Mughal Emperor was also from Jaipur – when Princess Indira Kanwar was forced to wed Emperor Farrukhsiyar as part of a peace treaty. This means that Jahangir had 50 percent Rajput blood while Shah Jahan had 75 percent – disregarding any blending on the side of their mothers.

The intent for tracing out this ancestral trail is to show that the players involved in this tragic tale were all related, in one way or the other to the Mughal imperial household, except of course, the unfortunate princess, the antagonist of this story – whose ancestors had refused the hands of their girls in marriage to the Mughals and for this reason regarded themselves as more honourable than their fellow Rajput chieftains. By the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, however, all these states in Central India, as everywhere else in the Subcontinent, had become independent but their rulers, lacking maturity and farsightedness, were constantly feuding with each other.

Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, in India (1804)
Krishna Kumari was born in Udaipur on the 10th of March 1794 to Bhim Singh, the 25th Maharana of Mewar, whose dynastic rule over the state extended back to 1324 when the last of the Khilji rulers were being replaced by the first of Tughlaq sultans.

In 1799, at the age of five, Krishna Kumari was engaged to his father’s namesake, Bhim Singh of Jodhpur. The exact age of her suitor is not known but considering that he had been involved in acquiring and preserving his seat of power since 1793, he must have been a mature man, much older than the Princess – but this was in keeping with the times. The readers are also reminded that the year of betrothal is the same as of Tipu Sultan’s heroic last stand at Seringapatam against the overwhelming forces of Brigadier Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington.

Unfortunately – and fate always seems to intervene at the most calamitous time – Bhim Singh, the bridegroom-to-be, suddenly died in October 1803, taking his wives with him to the funeral pyre. Remarkably a month after the battle of Assye where the British under Arthur Wellesley – Major General by now – decisively defeated the Marathas. These were troubled times for India when the local rulers were engaged in infighting over trifling matters and the British were liquidating them piecemeal.

A noblewoman prepares to sacrifice her life through ‘Jauhar’
The dispute over Princess Krishna Kumari was being closely monitored by the East India Company

Our princess became a victim of these troublesome times. This was also the year when the first British resident at Delhi was appointed, effectively putting the Mughal Emperor under a Company protectorate. Two years earlier in 1801, Maharaja Ranjit Singh had been crowned at Lahore. The great land of the Subcontinent was changing hands.

Following the death of the bridegroom-to-be, a 20-year-old cousin of his, Man Singh, assumed power. One of the first acts of the new ruler was to cancel an estate granted to a close relative of Krishna Kumari’s father, creating bad blood between the two – though the cancellation was the result of a prior rivalry between the new ruler and the relative and was in no way meant to offend the father of the princess. This, however, triggered a chain of events that resulted in bloody mayhem in the region.

Man Singh, the new ruler of Jodhpur, expected that as the princess was betrothed to his predecessor, her hand would now be offered to her. Her affronted father countered by announcing her engagement to Jagat Singh, the 17-year-old ruler of Jaipur. Now, Man Singh had a feud with Jagat Singh too, because the latter had supported a rival of the former for the throne of Jodhpur.

Bhim Singh, father of princess Krishna Kumari
I had warned at the outset that this tale is a bit confusing but stay on because it is reflective of the time and will demonstrate the remarkable petty-mindedness of the various state rulers of that time. One can thus actually gauge how they all played in to the hands of British, losing the entire Subcontinent to them. This was a time of a great transition.

Man Singh wasn’t the one to take this humiliation lightly and moved to take some impetuous actions. This is not surprising – since the gentleman turned recluse and lost his wits by the end of his life. On hearing of – or perhaps being invited to – the upcoming marriage, the jilted suitor threw the gauntlet and began preparations for war. The marriage was cancelled, or at least postponed.

Jaipur state, of the new prospective bridegroom, signed a treaty of friendship with the Company in 1803. He now sought their help in the matter but the latter decided to stay neutral and dissolved the treaty. According to Giles Tillotson in his Jaipur Nama, Jaipur’s Ambassador to the British C-in-C in India observed, “This was the first time, since the English government was established in India, that it had been known to make its faith subservient to its convenience.” But Jaipur should have known that the British were not about to go to war over the marriage of a girl.

The proud royal household of Mewar also preferred that the princess depart for the next world rather than bear the humiliation of being wedded to the prince from Jodhpur

Now is the time to introduce a fresh player in this intriguing story.

The Marathas had lost considerable power in their wars against Ahmed Shah Abdali and the British, but were still formidable in the field and had powerful states in the vicinity where our tragic princess lived. Daulat Rao Scindia of Gwalior and Holkar of Indore, now part of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, also interfered in the matter of this marriage.

As the armies of rival suitors marched to Udaipur to claim the hand of the princess, Man Singh invited Scindia to assist – by offering a tribute and agreeing to follow his council. Scinida defeated Jagat Singh and effectively took control of princess’s home state of Udaipur. He now tried to impose his crude solutions to the entrenched problem.

He first proposed that one of the several sisters of Krishna Kumari be given in marriage to Jodhpur as well, but Krishna’s father refused. Scindia then offered to marry the princess himself but the Rajputs considered the Marathas inferior and this proposal was rejected too. According to historian R.S. Chaurasia, Scindia was a promiscuous man and suffered from a painful venereal disease. Scindia finally vacated Udaipur without resolving anything. The princess was spared the affliction of an untreatable malady but she was being pushed to an early demise.

At this juncture, Holkar of Indore decided to increase his influence in Rajputana and offered to meditate the issue. He proposed that Krishna be married to some other person and Jagat Singh should marry a sister of Man Singh to conciliate the two. Jagat, however, refused this proposal as he considered his marriage to the princess as being sacred. He got Holkar’s promise of support against Scindia, and of Scindia by promising to pay him a million rupees. He then invaded Jodhpur in late1806 along with forces from Krishna Kumari’s home state of Udaipur and of Bikaner – a sparsely populated allied state in the neighbourhood. Man Singh left Jodhpur and took shelter in the Mehrangarh fort. The siege continued for six months but the fort held till May 1806 – when, due to scarcity of water and provisions, the besiegers left. Jagat Singh was additionally humbled as he is believed to have paid Rs. 200,000 to secure safe passage back home. Man Singh built a massive gate named Jai Pol in Jodhpur to commemorate the victory. The gate survives to this day.

Jai Pol in Jodhpur
The dispute over Krishna was being closely monitored by the East India Company. Edward Thompson writes in his 1943 book titled The Making of the Indian Princes that the Company’s Accountant General, in a March 1806 letter to the chairman of East India Company, had mentioned that the Rajput kings were about to “take up arms for the purpose of deciding their claims to the fair hand of the Princess” and expressed the possibility of a conflict involving the Rajput states, as well as Scindia and Holkar, which would “make a very desirable diversion” in the favour of the Company.

At this stage of the events, more players get further involved.

The name of Amir Khan of Tonk often appears with the suffix of ‘Pindari’. Pindari refers to irregular horsemen that plundered and foraged with the Maratha armies in central India during the 18th century. I intend writing a separate column on this fearsome and fearless soldier of fortune, therefore, I will resist from delving into his story any further. However, his entry into our current story also heralds the end for our princess.

Amir Khan usually did some dirty work – plundering, threatening, assassination – for Maratha chieftain Holkar, but he wasn’t averse to do some side business for quick cash. As Holkar was on the side of Jagat Sigh, who was still betrothed to our princess, Amir Khan too was on the side of her father. Amir Khan had participated in the siege of Mehrangarh and stayed on during the plunder of Jodhpur but deserted when victory eluded the besiegers.

In that environment of fickle alliances, Amir Khan had become independent of Holkar and in 1810, raided Udaipur, the hometown of the princess, on the behest of Man Sigh, her jilted suitor – for better money, of course..

It is reported that Amir Khan occupied the state and plundered the towns. He then decided that as long as Krishna Kumari lived, there could be no peace in the region. He swaggered into the courtroom of Udaipur and announced that either the princess be married to his client Man Singh or be killed. It was made clear to her father that in case either of these conditions was not met, it was Mewar that would become the battleground and suffer consequences..

Wistfully, with his back to the wall, Krishna Kumari’s father reached the same conclusion. The proud royal household of Mewar also preferred that the princess depart for next world rather than bear the humiliation of being wedded to the prince from Jodhpur.

There have been eulogies about how the princess died. It is said that she herself was convinced that her death was the only solution for the miseries of her family and people. Reportedly, her aunt administered the lethal opium-based drink to her – which, it is said, she accepted and drank with a smile on his face. The truth is that she had no choice in life or in death.

She represents the hundreds of thousands of girls and women who have no choice in their lives and who become silent victims of politics, wars and strife.

The struggle for central Rajasthan continued unabated after this tragic death. The British overcame the Napoleonic threat by June 1815 and turned their attention to consolidate their rule in India. Within the next five years, Udaipur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Scindia, Holkar and Amir Khan, as indeed all other states in the Subcontinent, came under the protection of the British and, as all stories end, lived peacefully thereafter as autonomous states for next century-and-a-half without causing any mischief, until their absorption in independent nations of Pakistan and India respectively.

Shall we not shed a tear for the innocent princess?

Parvez Mahmood retired as a Group Captain from PAF and is now a software engineer. He lives in Islamabad and writes on social and historical issues. He can be reached at

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Sore throat remedies

Sore Throat Remedies
Mix 1 teaspoon of lemon juice with 1 cup of hot water. The astringent juice will help to shrink swollen throat tissue and create a hostile (acidic) environment for viruses and bacteria.

2. Salt and Water

Make grandma’s effective sore throat remedy by mixing ¼ teaspoon salt in a cup of warm water. Use the hottest water that you can tolerate as cold gargles are completely ineffective. If you have some, add a tablespoon of Listerine for some germ-killing power. This briny solution helps to wash away and neutralize acids in the throat, relieving the burning sensation and promoting fast healing of irritated mucous membranes.

3. Ginger, Honey, and Lemon in Water

This sore throat remedy mixes 1 teaspoon each of powdered ginger and honey, ½ cup of hot water, and the juice of ½ a squeezed lemon. Pour the water over the ginger, then add the lemon juice and honey, and gargle. The honey coats the throat and also has mild antibacterial properties.

4. Sage and Water

Sage can help soothe a sore throat and ease painful or swollen nasal passages. The traditional home remedy calls for 1 teaspoon sage, ½ teaspoon alum, ¼ cup brown sugar, 3/8 cup of vinegar, and 1/8 cup water.

5. Hot Sauce and Water

Sore Throat Remedies
The capsicum in hot peppers helps to alleviate pain and fights inflammation. Add five shakes of ground cayenne pepper to a cup of hot water for sore throat relief. It’ll burn for a bit, but try this gargle every 15 minutes and see if it helps.
6. Turmeric and Water

This tasty yellow spice is a powerful antioxidant. For a sore throat remedy, mix ½ teaspoon of turmeric with ½ teaspoon of salt into 1 cup of hot water and gargle.

7. Wheatgrass Juice

A quick rinse and spit with this chlorophyll-rich liquid helps prohibit bacteria growth and ease throat pain. Wheatgrass juice is said to help stop toothache and revitalize weakened gums when held in the mouth for five minutes.

mumbai is the 12th richest city

Mumbai Is The Twelfth Richest City In The World With Total Wealth Of $950 Billion

Mumbai is said to have the richest Municipal Corporation in the country, and also the city of opportunities. India’s financial capital Mumbai, with a total wealth of USD 950 billion, has now been named among the top 15 wealthiest cities globally, while New York topped the list, says a report.
According to a report by New World Wealth, the economic hub of India is the 12th wealthiest city, followed by Toronto with a total wealth of USD 944 billion, Frankfurt (14th, USD 912 billion) and Paris (15th, USD 860 billion), reported PTI.
Click here to join World Malayali Club
Total wealth refers to the private wealth held by all the individuals living in each city. It includes all their assets (property, cash, equities, business interests) less any liabilities. Government funds are excluded from the figures, also features among the top 10 cities in terms of billionaire population. The city is home to 28 billionaires, individuals with USD 1 billion or more in in net assets.
Regarding Mumbai, the report said, “total wealth held in the city amounts to USD 950 billion. Mumbai is the economic hub of India. It is also home to the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the 12th largest stock exchange in the world. Major industries in the city include financial services, real estate and media”.
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Going forward, Mumbai is expected to be the fastest growing city (in terms of wealth growth over the next 10 years), it added. The list of 15 wealthiest cities was topped by New York with a total wealth of USD 3 trillion. “Home to the two largest stock exchanges in the world. Areas around New York such as Connecticut and Long Island also contain a large amount of wealth that is not included in this figure,” the report said.
London ranked second in the list with USD 2.7 trillion, followed by Tokyo (USD 2.5 trillion), and San Francisco Bay area (USD 2.3 trillion). Others in the list include Beijing (USD 2.2 trillion), Shanghai (USD 2 trillion), Los Angeles (USD 1.4 trillion), Hong Kong (USD 1.3 trillion), Sydney (USD 1 trillion), Singapore (USD 1 trillion) and Chicago (USD 988 billion).
Among the 15 cities listed, San Francisco, Beijing, Shanghai, Mumbai and Sydney were the fastest growing in terms of wealth growth over the past 10 years, the report said. Notable cities that just missed out on top 15 include: Houston, Geneva, Osaka, Seoul, Shenzhen, Melbourne, Zurich and Dallas, it added

Gemstone papers The American white Gold 1934 Onassis

———————————————– Part 1: **** The GEMSTONE FILE *** July, 1986 This is a verbatim transcript from a photo-copy that some person gave me. He said that part of this document or related documents were published in serial form in the late 1970’s in some kind of men’s magazine (Penthouse, Ramparts, After Dark?, I can’t remember, but I know it wasn’t Playboy as that would have stuck in my mind). I got this in 1984. Punctuation and grammer errors are included (there are plenty of punctuation errors and I think this guy’s horrible use of commas and parentheses is rubbing off on me.) A SKELETON KEY TO THE GEMSTONE FILES MAY 1, 1975 The gemstone file was written in many segments over a period of years by an American man named Bruce Roberts. Parts of the file were released to certain Americans beginning in 1969. The number of handwritten pages is well over a thousand, of which I have read about four hundred. I do not have the time of the research facilities to verify the entire story. Perhaps others can help. Since the scope of the work is so large, and the events described so complex and interlocking, it may be more easily understood with this skeleton outline of the gemstone thesis. Individual papers can then be read with greater comprehension. 1932: Onassis, a Greek drug pusher and ship owner who made his first million selling “Turkish tobacco” (Opium) in Argentina, worked out a profitable deal with Joseph Kennedy, Eugene Meyer, and Meyer Lansky. Onassis was to ship booze directly into Boston for Joseph Kennedy. Also involved was a heroin deal with Franklin and Elliott Roosevelt. 1934: Onassis, Rockefeller and the Seven Sisters (major oil companies) signed an agreement, outlined an oil cartel memo: Beat the Arabs out of their oil, ship it on Onassis’s ships; Rockefeller and the Seven Sisters to get rich. All this was done. Roberts, studying journalism and physics at the University of Wisconsin learned these things via personal contacts. His special interest was in crystallography — and the creation of synthetic rubies, the original Gemstone experiment. 1936-1940: Eugene Meyer buys the Washington Post, to get our news Media; other Mafia buy other papers, broadcasting, T.V., etc. News censorship of all major news goes into effect. 1941-1945: World War II; very profitable for Onassis, Rockefeller, Kennedys, Roosevelts, I.G. Parben, etc. Onassis selling oil, arms and dope to both sides went through the war without losing a single ship or man. 1949: Onassis buys U.S. surplus “Liberty Ships” in questionable (illegal) purchase. Lawyer Burke Marshall helps him. 1956: Howard Hughes, Texas millionaire, is meanwhile buying his way toward his own personal gain. He buys senators, governors, etc. He finally buys his last politician: newly elected V.P. Nixon, via a quarter-million dollar non-repayable loan to Nixon’s brother Donald. Early 1957: V.P. Nixon repays the favor by having IRS Treasury grants tax- free status (refused twice before) to “Hughes Medical Foundation”, sole owner of Hughes Aircraft, creating a tax-free, non-accountable money funnel or laundry, for whatever Hughes wanted to do. U.S. Government also shelved anti-trust suits against Hughes’ T.W.A., etc. March 1957: Onassis carried out a carefully planned event: He has Hughes kidnapped from his bungalow at the Beverly Hills Hotel, using Hughes’ own men (Chester Davis, born Cesare in Sisily, et al). Hughes” men either quit, get fired, or stay on in the new Onassis organization. A few days later, Mayor Cannon of Nevada (now senator Cannon) arranges a fake “marriage” to Jean Peters, to explain Hughes’ battered and brain damaged in the scuffle, is taken to the Emerald Isle Hotel in the Bahamas, where the entire top floor has been rented for thirty days and later dragged off to a cell on Onassis’s island, Skorpios. Onassis now has a much larger power base in the U.S. (the Hughes empire), as well as control over V.P. Nixon and other Hughes purchased politicians. L. Wayne Rector “Hughes” double since 1955, becomes “Hughes”. September, 1957: Onassis calls the Appalachian meeting to announce to U.S. Mafia head his grab of Hughes and his adoption of Hughes game plan for acquiring power: buying U.S. senators, congressmen, governors, judges to take control legally of the U.S. government. Onassis’s radio message to Appalachia from a remote Pennsylvania farmhouse intercepted (reluctantly) by FBI’s J. Edgar Hoover, on the basis of a tip-off from some Army Intelligence guys who wern’t in on the plan. Also in 1957: Joseph Kennedy takes John F. and Jackie to see Onassis on his yacht, introduced John and reminds Onassis of an old Mafia promise: the presidency for a Kennedy. Onassis agrees. 1958: Hordes of Mafia-selected, purchased and supported “grass roots” candidates sweep into office. 1959: Castro takes over Cuba from dictator Battista, thereby destroying cozy and lucrative Mafia gambling empire run for Onassis by Meyer Lansky. Castro scoops up 6$ million in Mafia casino receipts. Onassis is furious, V.P. Nixon becomes operations chief for CIA-planned Bay of Pigs invasion, using CIA Hunt, McCord, etc., and Cuban ex-Battista strong-arm cops (Cuban freedom-fighters) Martinez, Consalez, etc., as well as winners like Frank Sturgis (Fiorini). 1959: Stirring election battle between Kennedy and Nixon. Either way Onassis wins, since he has control over both candidates. 1960: JFK elected. American people happy. Rose Kennedy happy. Onassis happy. Mafia estatic. Roberts brings his synthetic rubies–the original gemstones to Hughes Aircraft in Los Angeles. They steal his rubies — the basis for Laser beam research, laser bombs, etc., because of the optical quality of the rubies. One of the eleven possible sources for one of the ingredients involved in the Gemstone experiment was the Golden Triangle area. Roberts was maried to the daughter of the former French consul in Indochina. In that area, Onassis’s involvements in the Golden Triangle dope trade was no secret. Roberts investigation revealed the Onassis-Hughes connection, kidnap and switch. “Gemstones”–synthetic rubies and sapphires with accomplished “histories”–gemstone papers–were sold or given away to consulun offices– in return for information. A world-wide information network was gradually developed-a trade of the intelligence activities of many countries. This intelligence network is the source for much of the information in the Gemstone File. January 1961: Joseph Kennedy has a stroke, ending his control over John and Bobby. The boys decide to rebel against Onassis’s control. Why? Inter-Mafia struggle? Perhaps a dim hope of restoring this country to it’s mythical integrity? They began committing Mafia no-no’s: Arrested Wally Bird owner or Air Thailand, who had been shipping Onassis’s heroin out of the Golden Triangle (Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam), under contract with the CIA (Air Opium): arrested teamster Mafia Jimmy Hoffa, and put him in jail. Declared the 73$ million in forged “Hughes” land liens, deposited with San Francisco Bank of America, as “security” for the TWA judgement against Hughes, to be what they are: Forgeries. April 1961: CIA Bay of Pigs fiasco. Hunt, McCord, CIA Battista’s Cubans and Mafia angry about JFK’s lack of enthusiasm. Mafia Onassis has his right-hand man “Hughes’top aid” former FBI and CIA Robert Maheu (nicknamed “IBM” for Iron Bob Maheu), hire and train a Mafia assassination team to get Castro. The team of a dozen or so includes John Roselli and Jimmy (The Weasel) Prattiano, expert Mafia hitmen, assisted by CIA Hunt and McCord and others. This was reported recently by Jack Anderson, who gets a lot of his “tips” from his friend, Frank (Fiorini) Sturgis–also on the Castro assassination team. The team tries five times to kill Castro with everything from long-range rifles to apple pie with sodium morphate in it. Castro survives. 1963: Members of the Castro assassination team arrested at Lake Pontechartrain, La. by Bobby Kennedy’s justice boys. Angered, Onassis stops trying to kill Castro. He changes target and goes for the head: JFK, who, according to Onassis, “welched” on a Mafia deal. JFK sets up “Group of 40” to fight Onassis. August 1963: Two murders had to occur before the murder of JFK, or people who would understand the situation and might squawk: Senator Estes Kefauver; whose crimes commission investigations had uncovered the 1932 deal between Onassis, Kennedy, Eugene Meyer, Lansky, Roosevelt, et al. Kefauver planned a speech on the senate floor denouncing Mafia operations; instead, he ate a piece of apple pie laced with sodium morphate (used in rat poison), and had a sodium-morphate-induced “heart attack” on the Senate floor. Phillip Graham: Editor of the Washington Post. Phillip had married Katherine Meyer, Eugene Meyer’s daughter, who had inherited the Washington Post and allied media empire. Graham put together the Kennedy-Johnson ticket and was Kennedy’s friend in the struggle with Onassis. According to Gemstone, Katherine Meyer Graham bribed some psychiatrists to certify that Phil was insane. He was allowed out of the nuthouse for the weekend and died of a shotgun wound in the head in the Graham home in Washington; death ruled “suicide”. November 1, 1963: The hit on JFK was supposed to take place in true Mafia style: a triple execution, together with Diem and Nhu in Vietnam. Diem and Nhu got theirs, as scheduled. Onassis had invited Jackie for a cruise on the Christina, where she was when JFK got tipped off that big “O” planned to wipe him out. JFK called Jackie on the yacht, from the White House, hysterical: “Get off that yacht if you have to swim”‘ and cancelled his appearance at a football stadium in Chicago, where this CIA-Mafia assassination team was poised for the kill. Jackie stayed on board, descended the gangplank a few days later on Onassis’s arm, in Turkey, to impress the Bey, Mustapha. Madame Nhu, in the U.S. bitterly remarked whatever has happened in Vietnam. One of the assassination teams was picked up in Chicago with a rifle and quickly released by the police. Three weeks later the Mafia’s alternate and carefully arranged execution plan went into effect: JFK was assassinated in Dallas. A witness who recognised pictures of some of the people arrested in Dealey Plaza as having been in Chicago three weeks earlier told Black Panthers Hampton and Clark. The JFK murder: Onassis-Hughes’ man Robert Maheu reassigned the Mafia-CIA Castro assassination team to the murder of JFK adding Eugene Brading a third Mafia hitman from the Denver Mafia Amaldones “family”. Two months earlier Brading on parole after a series of crimes applied for a new driver’s license explaining to the California DMV that he had decided to change his name to Jim Brading. Brading got his California parole the first time to look things over and the second time when JFK was scheduled for his Dallas trip. Lee Harvey Oswald CIA with carefully planned links to both the ultra right and to the Communists was designated as the patsy. He was supposed to shoot Governor Connally and he did. Each of the four shooters, Oswald, Brading, Frattiano and Roselli had a timer and a back up man. Back up men were supposed to pick up the spent shells and get rid of the guns. Timers would give the signal to shoot. Hunt and McCord were there to help. Sturgis was in Miami. Frattiano shot from a second story window in the Dal-Tex building across the street from the Texas School Book Depository. He apparently used a handgun-he is an excellent shot with a pistol. Frattiano and his back-up man were “arrested”, driven away from the Dal-Tex building in a police car and released (without being booked). The Dallas police office is in the Dal-Tex building. Roselli shot Kennedy once hitting the right side of his head and blowing his brains out with a rifle from behind a fence in the grassy knoll area. Roselli and his timer went down a manhole behind the fence and followed the sewer line away from Dealey Plaza. The third point of the triangulated ambush was supplied by Eugene Brading shooting from Kennedy’s left fram a small pagoda at Dealy Plaza across the street from the grassy knoll. (Brading missed because Roselli’s and Frattiano shot had just hit Kennedy in the head from the right and the rear nearly simultaneously). Brading’s shot hit the curb and ricocheted off. Brading was photographed on the scene stuffing his gun under his coat. He wore a big leather hat, its hatband marked with large conspicuous X’s. (Police had been instructed to let anyone with an X-marked hatband through the police lines. Some may have been told they were Secret Service). After his shot, Brading ditched his gun with his back-up man and walked up the street toward the Dal-Tex building. Sheriff rushed up to Brading, assuming he was “Secret Service” and told him he had just seen a man come out of the Book Depository and jumped into a station wagon. Brading was uninterested. Brading walked into the Dal-Tex building to “make a phone call”. There he was arrested by another deputy sheriff, showed his “Jim Braden” driver’s license and was released without being booked. Oswald shot Connally twice from the Texas School Book Depository. He split from the front door. His back-up man was supposed to take the rifle out of the building (or so Oswald thought); instead he “hid” it behind some boxes, where it would be found later. Three men dressed as tramps picked up the spent shells from Dealey Plaza. One was Howard Hunt. Then they drifted over to an empty boxcar sitting on the railway spur behind the grassey knoll area, and waited. A Dallas police officer ordered two Dallas cops to “go over to the boxcar and pick up the tramps”. The three ‘tramps’ paraded around Dealey Plaza to the Police Department in the Dal-Tex Building. They were held there until the alarm went out to pick up Oswald; then they were released, without being booked. In all, ten men were arrested immediately after the shooting; all were released soon after; none were booked; not a word about their existance is mentioned in the Warren Report. Regarding Lee Harvey Oswald: Officer Tippitt was dispatched in his police radio car to the Oak Cliff Section, where Oswald had rented a room. Tippett may have met Oswald on the street. He may have been supposed to kill Oswald, but something went wrong. Tippett was shot by two men using revolvers. The “witness”, Domingo Benavides, who used Tippitt’s police car radio to report “we’ve had a shooting here”, may have been one of the men who shot him. (A Domingo Benavides” appears in connection with the Martin Luther King shooting also.) Oswald went to the movies. A “shoe store manager” told the theatre cashier that a suspicious looking man had sneaked in without paying. Fifteen assorted cops and FBI charged out to the movie theatre to look for the guy who had sneaked in. Oswald had a pistol that wouldn’t fire. It may have been anticipated that the police would shoot the “cop-killer” for “resisting arrest”. But since that didn’t happen, the Dallas police brought Oswald out for small- time Mafia Jack Ruby to kill two days later. Brading stayed at the Teamster-Mafia-Hoffa-financed “Cuban Hotel” in Dallas. Ruby had gone to the Cabana the night before the murder, says the Warren Report. The rest, as they say, is history. Onassis was so confident of his control over police, media, FBI, CIA, Secret Service and the U.S. Judicial System that he had JFK murdered before the eyes of the entire nation; then systematically bought off, killed off, or frightened off all witnesses and had the evidence destroyed; then put a 75 year seal of secrecy over the entire matter. Cover up participants included among many: Gerald Ford on the Warren Commision (a Nixon recommendation): CIA attorney Leon Jaworski, of the CIA front Anderson Foundation, representing Texas before the Commission to see that the fair name of Texas was not besmirched by the investigation; CIA-Dallas Chief John McCone, his assistant; Richard Helms; and a passle of police, FBI, news media, etc. WHERE ARE THEY NOW? Johnny Roselli received part of his pay off for the head shot on JFK in the form of a $250,000 “finder’s fee for bringing “Hughes” (Onassis) to Las Vegas in 1967. Jimmy Frattiano’s pay-off included $109,000 in “non-repayable loans”, from the S.F. National Bank (President: Joe Alioto). Credit authorization for the series of loans from 1961 to 1965, came from Joe Alioto and a high Teamster official. Dun and Bradstreet noted this transaction in amazement, listing how Frattiano could explain so much “credit” as his only known title (listed in D&B) was “Mafia-Executioner”. Frattiano went around for years bragging about it: “Hi there, I’m Jimmy Frattiano, Mafia Executioner….” A bank V.P. told the whole story to the California Crime Commission, where Al Harris, who later shot off his mouth a little too much–“Heart attacked”. When last seen March, 1975, Frattiano was testifying before a S.F. Grand Jury in regard to his participation, with East Coast Mafia Tony Romane, in the Sunol Golf Course swindle (which cost S.F. somewhere between $100,000 in “non-repayable loans” to start a trucking company in the Imperial Valley, where he engaged in a lot more swindling–involving U.S. Government member explained, “The Mafia is doing business directly with the U.S. Government now”. Brading was questioned by the FBI two months after his arrest and released in Dallas as part of the Warren Commission’s determination to “leave no stone unturned” in its quest for the truth about the JKF assassination. In spite of the fact that Brading was a known criminal with an arrest record dating back about twenty years, the FBI reported that Brading knew nothing whatsoever about the assassination. Brading became a charter member of the La Costa Country Club, Mafia heaven down near San Clemente. He also became a runner for the skim money from the Onassis “Hughes” Las Vegas casinos to Onassis’ Swiss Banks. GERALD FORD; of the Warren Commission went on to become President by appointment of Nixon, then in danger of even further and more serious exposure–from which position of trust Ford pardoned Nixon one month later, for “any and all crimes he may have committed.” That covers quite a lot but Ford is good at covering things up. McCONE; the head of CIA-Dallas, went on to become a member of the ITT Board of Directors sitting right next to Francis L. Dale, the head of CREEP. RICHARD HELMS; McCone’s assistant at Dallas, ultimately has been rewarded with the post of CIA Director. LEON JOWARSKI; CIA Attorney, became the Watergate Prosecuter, replacing Cox, who was getting too warm. Jowarski turned in a startling performance in our “government-as-theatre” the honest, conscientious investigator who “uncovered” not a bit more than he had to and managed to steer everybody away from the underlying truth. Dr. “RED” DUKE; the man who dug two bullets out of Connelly and saved his life was shipped off to a hospital in Afghanistan by a grateful CIA. JIM GARRISON; New Orleans D.A. who tried to get Eugene Brading out of L.A. (but used one of Brading’s other aliases, Eugene Bradley, by mistake), had his witnesses shot out from under him, and was framed on charges of bribery and extortion. FBI officers “confiscated” photos of Brading taken on the scene, etc. After JKF’s death, Onassis quickly established control over Lyndon Johnson through fear. On the trip back to Washington, Johnson was warned by radio relayed from an air force base; “There was no conspiracy, Oswald was a lone nut assassin. Get it Lyndon? Otherwise, Air Force might have unfortunate accident on flight back to Washington.” Onassis filled all important government posts with his own men. All government agencies became means to accomplish an end: rifle the American Treasury, steal as much as possible, keep the people confused and disorganized and leaderless; persuade world domination. JFK’s original “Group of 40” was turned over to Rockefeller and his man, Kissinger, so that they could more effectively take over South America (Onassis was one of the first to console Jackie when she got back from Dallas with JFK’s body.) Silva, a S.F. private detective hired by Angelina Alioto to get the goods on philandering Joe, followed Joe Alioto to Vacaville, to the Nut Tree Restaurant, where Joe held a private meeting with other Mafioso to arrange the details of the JFK assassination pay off to Frattiano. 1967: Onassis has always enjoyed the fast piles of money to be made through gambling (in Manaco, in the 50’s and in Cuba under Battista). Onassis took over Las Vegas in 1967, via the “Hughes” cover. U.S. Governmet officials explained that it was alright because “at least Hughes isn’t the Mafia.” Mafia Joe Alioto had Presidential ambitions, shored up by his participation in the Dallas pay-off. Everyone who helped kill JKF got a piece of the U.S. pie. But J. Edgar Hoover, FBI head, blew his cover by releasing some of the raw FBI files on Alioto at the Democratic National Convention. Joe was out of the running for V.P. and Humphrey had to settle for Muskie. Humphry planned to come to S.F. for a final pre-election rally, sparked by Joe Alioto. Roberts threatened to blow the hit-run story plus its Mafia ramifications open if Humphrey came to S.F. Humphrey didn’t come; Humphrey lost in San Francisco, California and the election. October 1968: Jackie Kennedy was now “free” to marry Onassis. An old Mafia rule: if someone welches on a deal, kill him and take his gun and his girl: in this case, Jackie and the Pentagon. July, 1969: Mary Jo Kopechne, devoted JFK girl, and later one of Bobby’s trusted aides, was in charge of packing up his files after his assassination in L.A. She read too much, learned about the Kennedy Mafia involvement and other things. She said to friends: “This isn’t Camelot, this is murder.” She was an idealistic American Catholic. She didn’t like murdering hypocrites. She died trying to get off Chappaquiddick Island, where she had overheard (alonf with everyone else in the cottage) Teddy Kennedy’s end of the D.H. Lawrence cottage telephone calls from John Tunney and to Joe Alioto, and Democrat bigwigs Swig, Shorenstein, Schumann and Bechtel. Teddy’s good friend John Tunney called to complain that Alioto’s friend Cycil Magnin and others had tried to bribe Jess Unruh to switch from the Governor’s race to run for the Senate for the seat John Tunney wanted so that Alioto would have an easier run for Governor. Teddy called Alioto, who told him to go to hell; then Teddy called the rest to arrange for yet another Mafia murder. Mary Jo, up to there with Mafia ran screaming out of the cottage on her way to Nader. Drunken Teddy offered to drive her to the ferry. Trying to get away from curious Sheriff look, Teddy sped offf toward the Bridge, busted Mary Jo’s nose when she tried to grab his arm from the back seat, and bailed out of the car as it went off the bridge. Mary Jo with a busted nose, breathed in an air bubble in the car for more than two hours waiting for help, while Teddy, assuming she was dead, to set up an alibi. Mary Jo finally suffocated in the air bubble, diluted with carbon dioxide. It took her 2 hours and 37 minutes to suffocate while Teddy called Jackie and Onassis on the Christina. Teddy also clled Katherine Meyer Graham, lawyers, etc. Jackie called the Pope on Teddy’s behalf, who assigned Cardinal Cushing to help. The next morning, the first person Teddy tried to call after deciding he’d have to take the rap himself was a lawyer, Burke Marshall, Onassis’s friend in the U.S. Liberty shipps deal back in the forties and also the designated custodian for JFK’s brains after Dallas (the brains have since disappeared). Cover-up of the Chappaquiddick murder required the help of Massachusetts Highway Patrol, which “confiscated” the plates from Teddy’s car after it was fished out of the pond: the Massachusetts Legislature, which changed a 150 year old law requiring an autopsy (which would have revealed the suffocation and broken nose); Coroner Mills, who let Kennedy’s aide K. Dun Grifford, supply him with a death certificate, already prepared for Hill’s signature, listing cause of death as drowning: Police Chief Arenas: Cardinal Cushing’s priest who appeared before the Kopechne’s “direct from God” with personal instructions from Him that Mary Jo was not to be disturbed; a Pennsylvania mortuary where Mary Jo’s broken nose was patched up, East and West phone companies, whiched clamped maximum security on the records of calls to and from the cottage. S.F. Police Chief Cahill was reassigned to a new job; Security Chief for Pacific Telephone. The U.S. Senate, who never said a word about Teddy’s (required equipment) plug- in phone; the judge who presided over the mock hearing; James Feston, editor of Martha’s vineyard’s only newspaper, who never heard a word about Teddy’s phone at the cottage, though residents called in to tell the newspaper; the New York Times, Washington Post, etc. John Tunney’s sister, Joan, heard her brother’s end of the phone call, made from her house in Tiburon, to the Chappaquiddick cottage. The next day, after Mary Jo died, Joan ran away to Norway, where she was kidnapped by Mafia hoods Mari and Adamo. They locked her up in a Marseille heroin factory. Joan’s husband complained so she chopped his head off with an ax, and was subsequently locked up in a nuthouse belonging to the Marquess of Blandford, then Tina Livanos Onassis’ husband. Mari and Adamo got pressed into scrap metal in a New Jersey auto junkyard. In the panic of trying to cover up Teddy’s quilt at Chappaquiddick, many things came unglued. The JFK murder threatened to creep out of the woodwork again; Black Panthers Hampton and Clark were murdered (the Chicago cops fired over Attorney Charles Garry’s because of what they knew about the JFK murder squad’s presence at Chicago on November 1,1963. September 1969: “Gemstones”, with histories, had been released around the globe for several years. In 1969, Roberts gave a Gemstone with history to Mack, head of California CREEP, for Nixon, with the proposition: the Presidency in return for wiping out the Mafia. The “history” included Teddy’s phone calls to and from the Lawrence Cottage on Chappaquiddick billed to Teddy’s home phone in Havannisport. Nixon being Mafia himself, wasn’t interested; but kept the information to use on Teddy whenever it seemed advantageous. May 4, 1970: Charlotte Ford Niarchos called her ex-husband Stavros, worried about the Ford Foundation’s involvement in the Chappaquiddick cover-up. Eugenie Livanos Niarchos, in bed with her husband, overheard the conversation. Stavros was forced to beat her to death; he ruptured her spleen and broke the cartilage in her throat. Cause of death was listed as “overdose of barbituates,” though autopsy showed these injuries. NOTE: L. Wayne Rector was hired around 1955 by the Carl Byoir P.R. Agency (Hughes L.A. P.R. firm) to act as Hughes double. In 1957 when Onassis grabbed Hughes, Rector continued to act as his stand-in. Rector was the Hughes surrogate in Las Vegas; Robert Maheu actually ran the show; Maheu got his orders from Onassis; the six “nursemaids”, called the “Mormon Mafia”, kept Rector sealed off from prying eyes. June 17, 1969: Bobby Kennedy knew who killed his brother; he wrote about it in his unpublished book, The Enemy Within. When he foolishly tried to run for President, Onassis had offed, usinf=g a sophisticated new technique hypnotized Sirhan, Sirhan shooting from the front “security guard” (from Lockheed Aircraft). Thane Cesar shooting from two or three inches away from Bobby’s head from the rear. Sirhan’s shots all missed. Evelle Younger, then the L.A. District Attorney, coverer it all up including the squawks of the L.A. Coroner Thomas Noguchi. Younger was rewarded with the post of California Attorney General later. His son, Eric Younger, got a second generation Mafia reward; a judge-ship at age 30. (See Ted Charach, L.A. author and director, The Second Gun, a documentary film on the RFK murder, bought and suppressed by Warner Brothers for more details). After Bobby’s death, Teddy knew who did it. He ran to Onassis afraid for his life and swore eternal obedience. In return, Onassis granted him his life and said he could be President, too, just like his big brother, if he would behave himself and folow orders. September 16, 1968: Hit and run accident on Robert’s car parked in front of the Russian consulate on S.F. who routinely takes pictures of everything that goes on in front of the consulate. Their photos showed the license plate of the hit and run car UKT-264, on a blue Cadillac belonging to Angela Alioto, Joe’s daughter, being driven by Tom Alioto, Joe’s son whose driving license had been revoked. His license and the cars license were both fraudulent. To cover up the hit and run circumstances, B.F. MPJ’s from the Presido quickly staged a few more hit and runs on the same corner all duly filmed by the Russians. Katheryn Hollister, the Alioto family nurse was “persuaded” to take the rap for the hit and run. Roberts threatened to spill the whole story in court with photos. Next evening Brading and Frattiano showed up in the Balck Magic Bar, Brading wearing his x-marked hat from Dallas to see whether Roberts recognized it, how much he knew, etc. A S.F. MP from the Presidio piped up from the end of the bar, “Iheard they let everyone with an X-marked hatband through the police lines at Dallas”. Cover up support for Alioto in the hit and run was completed. End of 1970: Howard Hughes presence on earth no longer required. His handwritting could be duplicated by a computer. His biography all the known facts about his life had been compiled and a computerized biography issued to top Hughes executives. His double – Rector – had been doing “Hughes” for years. And Hughes was ill. Clifford Irving, author of Hoax, about an art forger, became interested in “Hughes”. Living on Ibazza, he heard the Mediterranean gossip that “Hughes” was a hoax, too. He went to “Hughes” so-called “Mormon Mafia”, the six nursemaids for information. One of them, Merryman perhaps, tired of the game, gave Irving the computerized Hughes biography and from it Irving wrote his “autobiography”. Hughes’ death was expected shortly. Preparations were being made so that it would not interfere with the orderly continuation of his empire. Irving wrote his book and the publishers anounced it. Onassis knew someone had given Irving the information. He thought it was Maheu and fired him in November, 1970. On Thanksgiving Eve, 1970, in the middle of the night “Hughes” (Rector made a well-publicized “secret departure” from Las Vegas to the Bahamas). December 1970: Onassis discovered his mistake and had Merryman killed. Robert Maheu accidentally deprived of his half-million dollars annual salary, sued “Hughes” for millions mentioning “Hughes” game plan for the purchase of Presidents, governors, Senators, judges, etc. Onassis paid off cheap at the price to maintain his custodianship of “American democracy” and the “free world” and keep from hanging for multiple murders. The “Hughes” Mormon Mafia party, plus Rector, fled around the world from the Bahamas where they murdered an uncooperative Governor and Police Chief, to Nicaragua, where they shot the U.S. Ambassador between the eyes for noticing that there wasn’t really any Hughes; and then to Canada, where Mormon Mafia nursemaid Sckersley looted a goodly sum in a swindle of the Canadian Stock Exchange; and on to London to Rothschild’s Inn of the Park. April 18, 1971: Howard Hughes, a human vegetable as the result of serious brain damage during his 1957 hustle, plus fourteen years of heroin, grew sicker and sicker. A final overdose of heroin did him in. His coffin was lowered into the sea from a rocky headland off the coast of Skorpios. Present at the funeral were: Jackie Kennedy Onassis, Teddy Kennedy, Francis L. Dale, Director of CREEP, and a South Vietnamese cardinal named Thue. Onassis allowed some pictures to be taken from a distance; he himself did not appear. The pictures were published in Midnight, a Canadian tabloid. Albanian frogmen, tipped off, were waiting under the water. They siezed the coffin and took the corpse off to Yugoslavia, then to China, Russia and then perhaps to Boston in a foot locker. The corpse’s dental work was compared to Hughes very own dental records and they matched. News of Hughes death, the U.S. take-over by Onassis and the facts surrounding the murders of JFK, RFK, Martin Luther King, Mary Jo Kopechne, and many more and the subsequent cover-ups (involving still more murders) had been circulating around the globe for several years. Any country with this information can blackmail the U.S> Mafia government, which has no choice but to pay up. The alternative is to be exposed as a bunch of treasonous murderers. This is why China-hating, red-hating Nixon was forced to recognize China (which he now claims as his greatest accomplishment). And this is also why the USSR walks off with such good deals in U.S. loans, grains and whatever elst it wants. All they have to do is mention those magic words – ‘Hughes, JFK, RFK, MLK, Mary Jo – and the U.S. Mafia government crawls into a hole. Information once leaked can’t be unleaked. The only way to end the delema is through a nuclear war and that wouldn’t be one-sided. The other way would be to throw the Mafia out of the United States. Starting at the top with Ford, Rockefeller and Kissinger. Super- patriots please note: No one, not all of the radicals and subversives hounded by the US domestic intelligence put together has done one fraction of the damage done to US economy, morality, power and prestige as by the theives at the top. On the day that Hughes was buried, Clifford Irving’s wife presented a publisher’s check mode out to “H. Hughes” to Onassis’ Swiss Bank for payment. Onassis paid off cheaply at the price. Gemstone papers rolling around the world here and abroad kept the situation hot. Everyone was nervous. Rockefeller gave Kissinger $50,000 for Carlson and Brisson to write their ‘expose’ The Alioto Mafia Web for LOOK magazine. Their mission: find out everything that was public record about Alioto’s connection with the JFK murder. There was a pay-off to Frattiano, listed in D&B. They were to explain it any way that didn’t lead back to Dallas. The idea was to get Alioto to quietly go away but still keep the lid on everything. May, 1971: Tina Livanos Onassis Blandford married Starvon Niarchos, her former brother-in-law until he killed her sister, Eugenie. May, 1971: “Folk Hero” Daniel Ellsberg, a well-known hawk from the Rand Corporation, who had designed the missile ring around the “Iron Curtain” countries (how many missiles to aim at which cities) was told to release the faked-up “Pentagon Papers” to help distract people from Hughes, JFK, RFK, MLK etc. The papers were carefully designed by Ellsberg and his boss, Rand Chief and new World Bank Chief Bob (Body Count) McNamara, to make the Vietnamese War look like “just one of those incredibly dumb mistakes”. This helped to cover up the real purpose of the war: continued control, for Onassis and his friends of the Golden Triangle dope trade: Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia; and for Onassis and the oil people of Eastern oil sources, to say nothing of control over huge Federal sums, which could be siphoned off in profitable arms contracts, or conveniently ‘disappear’ in the war effort. McNamara’s ‘World Bank’ handing-out of American money to ‘starving nations’ actually set up huge private bank accounts for various dictators in the Onassis-controlled Swiss bank. The money could be used as needed to support and extend Mafia operations. Example: $8 billion in World Bank funds for ‘starving Ethiopians’ wound up in Emperor Haile Selassie’s personal accounts in the Swiss bank. This would make him the richest individual in the world, but other dictators have Swiss bank accounts too. Perhaps they are even larger. The money drained from America and other captive Mafia nations feeds a greed that can never be satisfied. Rand Corp., one of our major ‘think tanks’ has another goody in store for the public: “Project Star” – Rand’s cover-up fallback version of the JFK murder held in reserve should public restlessness over the Warren Commission Report cover-up ever threaten to get out of hand. That ought to confuse the people for at least another twelve years, and by that time most of us will be dead anyway…. NOTE IN PASSING: The dope trade routes are: Golden Triangle to Taiwan to San Francisco. Heroin from the Golden Triangle was sometimes smuggled into San Francisco in the bodies of American GIs who died in battle in Vietnam. One body can hold up to 40 pounds of heroin, crammed in where the guts would be. Some dope gets pressed into dinner plates and painted with pretty patterns. One dope bust in S.F. alone yielded $6 billion in herion ‘china plates’ – the largest dope bust in history. It was quickly and completely hushed up by the S.F.-Mafia press. The dope sat in the S.F.P.D. for a while, then was removed by FBI men and probably sent on its way to American veins. All this dope processing and shipping is controlled and supervised by the Mafia for the Mafia. Dope arrests and murders are aimed at independant pushers and maverick peddlers and smugglers who are competing with or holding out on the Mafia. While Nixon was conducting his noisy campaign against dope smuggling accross the Mexican border, his dope officer in charge of protecting the Mafia dope trade was E. Howard Hunt! Lots of heroin gets processed in a Pepsi Cola factory in Laos. So far, it hasn’t produced a single bottle of Pepsi Cola. Some dope gets processed in heroin factories in Marseilles. (See the French Connection). Still more dope comes from South America — cocaine and new heroin. US aid went to build a highway accross Paraguay. Useless for the natives who have no cars. (They use it for sunbathing in the day), it becomes the longest landing strip in the world and serves airplanes loaded with cocaine. It is financed by US tax money for the benifit of the international Mafia dope pushers. And then there is opium from Turkish morphine. This was the starting point of Onassis’ fortune. In case one is still wondering whether the Mafia can actually get away with such things, consider the benifits derived from controlling the stock market, the courts, the police, etc. In one swindle alone; the 1070 acquisition by “Hughes” of “Air West”, which involved swindling Air West stockholders of $45 million. Recently indicted for this swindle by the SEC in a civil suit were “Howard Hughes” and Jimmy (the Greek) Snyder, not usually associated with the Hughes crowd, and others. June 1971: Ney York Times began publishing the Pentagon Papers, Rand Corp’s prepared cover-up of the real reasons for the Vietnamese war. Nixon had gotten a copy of the first Gemstone Papers circulated in the U.S. back in 1969. He was now wondering how much information Democratic Chairman Larry O’Brien had about Hughes, Onassis, JFK, RFK, etc. and more specifically how much of the dirt the Democrats planned to use. Nixon set up the “plumbers unit” to stop security leaks, investigate other security matters. Erlichman, Krogh, Liddy, Hunt, Young, etc. Hunt as “White House consultant” supposedly worked for the Mullen Corp. a CIA cover. Mullen’s head client was “Howard Hughes” Robert Bennett was the head of the Mullen Corp. June 28, 1971: Ellsberg indicted for leaking the Pentagon Papers. September 3, 1971: The Watergate team broke into Ellsberg’s docter’s (Fielding’s) office to get Ellsberg’s psychiatric records. Team members CIA Hunt and Liddy, Cuban “Freedom fighters” De Denio, Martinez, Bernard Barker. All except Liddy had worked together back at the Bay of Pigs. Question: Why the intense battle between Mafia forces? Answer: While Onassis was the recognized crowned head of the Mafia, intense, no holdsbarred scuffling for the lucrative second spot (control of U.S. Presidency, government and so on) was permissible and encouraged under the Mafia code of rules. The only stipulation: Outsiders mustn’t know about it. “Hughes” contributed liberally and equally to both Democratic and Republican parties for the 1972 election. The winner would get even more for “Hughes”. September 23, 1971: E. Howard Hunt spliced up the phoney cables implicating JFK’s administration in the Diem assassination. October, 1971: Look magazine apologized to Alioto for their Alioto Mafia Web article and folded. The sticking point: they couldn’t prove Alioto’s Mafia Nut Tree meeting back in 1963 re: the JKF murder. November, 1971: Alioto re-elected S.F. mayor. December, 1971: Robets applied for a “Gemstone” visi from the Russian Consulate on a tapped phone. Phone was tapped by Hal Lipset, S.F. private investigator, who worked for Katherine Meyer Graham and others, and routinely monitored Consulate phone calls. January, 1972: The Watergate team showed up at the San Francisco Drift Inn, a CIA-FBI safe-house hangout bar, where Roberts conducted a nightly Gemstone rap for the benefit of any CIA or FBI or anyone who wandered in for a beer. James McCord, Martinez, Bernard Barker, Garcia and Frank Sturgis showed up – along with a San Francisco dentist named Fuller. James McCord remarked: “Sand and Arab oil with hydrogen heat makes glass brick threat of war to Arab nations”. The event, like the other nightly raps, was taped by the Drift Inn bartender, Al Stern, who was paid to do so by his old friend, Katherine Graham, but told his other friend, Roberts, about it. The bar was also wired for sound by Arabs, Russians and Chinese. January 27, 1972: Liddy and Dean met in Mitchell’s office, with Liddy’s charts for his $1 million “plan” for spying, kidnapping, etc. The plans included breaking into Hank Greenspun’s Las Vegas office safe, in hopes of recovering Greenspun’s file: on the Hughes kidnapping and Onassis’s Vegas operations, which Greenspun had successfully used to blackmail Onassis out of $4 million or so. A “Hughes” get away plane would stand by to take the White House burglers to Mexico. February, 1972: Liddy and Hunt traveled around a lot, using “Hughes Tool Co.” calling cards, and aliases from Hunt’s spy novels. Liddy, Hunt and other Watergaters dropped by for a beer at the Drift Inn, where they were photographed on bar stools for Katherine Graham. These photos were later used in the Washington Post, when Liddy, Hunt and others were arrested at Watergate because CIA men like Liddy and Hunt aren’t usually photographed. Roberts quoted to Liddy “the Chinese stock market in cars” the price on Onassis’s head by the ear in retaliation for a few things Onassis had done; on Wayne Rector, the Hughes double; Eugene Wyman, California Democratic Party Chairman and Mafia JFK pay off bagman; and on Lyndon Johnson “four bodies twisting in the breeze”. Robert’s quoting prices to Liddy at the Drift Inn made their deaths a mortal cinch. Liddy’s like that and that’s why the murdering slob was picked by the Mafia. “Gemstones” rolling around the Drift Inn in February inspired Liddy’s Gemstone plan that became Watergate. February, 1972: Francis L. Dale, head of CREEP and ITT Board of Directors member, pushed Magruder to push Liddy into Watergate. In a Mafia-style effort to shut Roberts up, his father was murdered by “plumbers” team members Liz Dale (Francic L. Dale’s ex-wife), Martinez, Gonzalez, Barker; in Hahnemann’s hospital, S.F. where Mr. Roberts had been take after swallowing a sodium morphate “pill” slipped into his medicine bottle at home by Watergate locksmith (Miami’s “Missing Link” locksmith shop) Gonzales. The pill didn’t kill him. He had a weak digestion and vomitted enough of the sodium morphate up (it burned his lips and tongue on the way out) but he had emphyxema and went to the hospital. In the hospital, “nurse” Liz Dale and “doctor” Martinez assisted him to sniff a quadruple-strength can of aerosol medicine enough to kill him the next day. The day before, Tisseront, head of the College of Cardinals at the Vatican, was pushed out of a Vatican window. Tisseront had followed the career of the present Pope, Montini (whose mother was Jewish). Montini sodium-morphate murdered Pope Pius XI; was banished from Rome for it by Pius XII; became Pope in 1963. Tisseront wrote it all down; called the Pope “The Deputy of Christ at Auschwitz”, and the fulfillment of the Fatima 3 Phophecy: that “The anti-Christ shall rise to become the head of the Church”. Tisseront also wrote about all the suppressed secrets of the Roman Catholic Church: i.e. that Jesus Christ was an Arab, born April 16, 6 B.C. at the rare conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter. Arab (Persian) astronomers (the Magi) came to Bethlehem to look for their king, an Arab baby and found him in a stable, because the Jews wouldn’t let Arabs Joseph and Mary into their nice clean inns, even then. When Jesus overturned the tables of the money lenders at the Temple, the Jews had the Romans nail him to a cross. He died on the cross when the Roman soldiers stuck a spear in his side, pulled out his liver, and ate it. Tacitus, the Roman historian, described it all in a chunk of history deleted by the Church. Nero burned Rome but that didn’t stop the spreading of Moses’ teachings by the early Christians, (Arabs). So the Romans decided to adopt the religion, clean it up, make Christ a Jew and Mary a virgin, and work out a chruch state deal to fool the people in the name of God and country that had been operating ever since. Around 311 A.D. at the Council of Nicasa the Christian Orthodoxy was established; a dissenting bishop had his hands chopped off; another bishop was assigned to round up all the old copies of the Bible and destroy them in favor of the “revised” de-Arabized version. Cleaned up Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John were declared “it”, the other Gospels were declared Apocryphal, and heretical. Roman Emperor Constantine became the first “Christian” emperor. Later during the holy crusades the Bible was again rewritten to include Jesus’ warning against the “yellow race”. “27 Gemstones, with histories, to 27 countries brought Red China into the U.N. and threw Taiwan out. April, 1972: Money pours into CREEP: “Gulf Resources and Chemicals Corp., Houston, Texas” contributes $100,000; illegal laundered through Mexico, comes back through Liedtke of Pennzoil Corp., Houston. Robert Vesco gives Maurice Stans $200,000 “campaign contributions”, etc. Liddy gives McCord $76,000. McCord buys $58,000 worth of bugging equipment, cameras, etc. May, 1972: J. Edgar Hoover had the Gemstone File: threatened to expose Dallas-JFK in an “anonymous” book, The Texas Mafia. Instead, someone put sodium morphate in his apple pie. The corpse was carted away from his home in the back seat of a V.W.–and his files were “burned” but some of them got away. May 28, 1972: First break-in at Watergate: McCord, Barker, Martinez, Garcia, Gonzales, Sturgis, DeDiego and Pico stood guard outside. Hunt and Liddy directed the operation from a (safe?) distance –across the street. The object was to check on Onassis’s two men to Democratic Party HQ: Larry O’Brien and Spencer Oliver. (O’Brien chief “PR: client had been “Hughes”; Oliver’s father worked for Onassis). McCord wire-tapped their phones. But!!!! little did McCord know that the plumbers were being observed by Hal Lipset, Katherine Graham’s S.F. detective who had followed two of the plumbers from Liz Dale’s side in S.F. to Watergate. Lipset “watched in amazement” as the Plumbers broke in and bugged the phones: then reported back to his boss Katherine Graham. Lipset and Graham set the trap for the Watergaters when they returned to remove their bugs and equipment. “The style of the old Holy Roman Empire: a slave nation paying tribute to the conqueror.” October, 1973: Another “Holy War”–Israelis VS Arabs.. January, 1974: Joe Alioto grants Sunol Golf Course lease to Mafioso Komano, Frattiano, Nuniz, Madiros, Abe Chapman and Neil Neilson. Alioto sets up the Dallas murder squad in S.F. for more murders. January 26, 1974: “Hughes” extradition trial cancelled in Reno by “Alioto Mafia Web” Mafia Judge Thomson after Moses Lasky from Mafia Alioto’s California Crime Commission waves the forged “Howard Hughes” signature under his nose. Maheu “wins” his damage suit against “Hughes” his blackmail pay-off after discussing Hughes’ “Game Plan” for buying control of the U.S> by buying politicians: governors, judges, senators and presidents. February, 1974: Mafia Hearst’s daughter Patty “kidnapped” by Lipset’s SLA in a fake terrorist action. Martin Luther King’s mother was murdered by a black student, a self declared “Israelite”–“acting alone” who was escorted to the church by somebody– and who had a list of other mothers as targets. Next day the target Shirley Chisholm got the message and rushed to sign off the DNC suit against CREEP naming Francis L. Dale; she had been the last to hold out. April 4, 1974: Mary McCarthy, a writer who had been given a copy of the Gemstone file, said in an article in the New York Review of Books, that the key to the formation of Liddy’s Gemstone plan lay in the where-abouts and activities of the Plumbers between December, 1971 and February, 1972. Answer: They were in the Drift Inn, watching Gemstones rolling around on the bar top. August 6, 1974: Nixon and Ford signed a paper at the White House. It was an agreement: Ford could be President. Nixon got to burn his tapes and files and murder anyone he needed to cover it all up. August 7, 1974: Roberts passed information to Pavlov at the S.F. Russian Consulate which led directly to Nixon’s resignation the “more” journalism review’s story about Denny Walsh’s “Reopening of the Alioto Mafia Web story for the New York Times, killed in a panic”, plug a long taped discussion of who and what the Mafia is. Hal Lipset listened to the conversation in the bugged Consulate room, had the phone lines open to Rockefeller and Kissinger who listened too. Rockefeller sent Kissinger to the White House with Nixon’s marching orders: “Resign right now”. Nixon and Julie cried. But there was still some hope, if Nixon resigned immediately, of drawing the line somewhere–before it got to the King of the Mountain himself– Onassis. Nixon, on trial, would blurt out those names to save himself: Onassis, Dale, “Hughes”, even JFK. August 8, 1974: Nixon stepped down, and Ford stepped up: to keep the cover-up going. August 23, 1974: Frattiano in San Francisco, staying at the Sunol Golf Course. More murders scheduled RE: Gemstone cover-up. August 30, 1974: Ford hires Mafia lawer Becker to work out a pardon deal for Nixon, who might otherwise name Onassis, Graham, and Pope Martini to save himself. San Francisco Zebra Murders: A series of “random” killings, dubbed “Zebra murders” by the police because supposedly blacks were killing whites. The real target was Silva, the witness to Alioto’s Mafia Nut Tree meeting. Silva was shot to death in an alley. Careful Mafia planning went into this series, to kill several birds with one stone. 1.) Get witness Silva out of the way, without being too “obvious” about it. 2.) Spread fear of “black terrorists” and convince people that the police department needed more money and more repressive power. 3.) Blame and frame Black Muslims, knock off leaders of the opposition. September 7, 1974: Roberts made made an agreement with a friend, Harp, of Kish Realty, over a bugged phone. Harp was to buy a Gemstone with history for $500, the price of a trip to Canada for Roberts to check into the “Hughes” Mormon Mafia Canadian stock market swindle and other matters. But Harp was sodium-morphate poisoned before the deal could go through on this date. Note: Sodium morphate: a favorite Mafia poison for centuries. Smells like apple pie, and is sometimes served up in one, as to J. Edgar Hoover. Sometimes in a pill or capsule. Symptoms: lethergy, sleep, sometimes vomiting. Once ingested, there is a heart attack and no trace is left in the body. Proof is in the vomit which is usually not analysed. Not mentioned in your standard medical book on poisons, etc. It is a common ingredient in rat poison. September 8, 1974: Ford pardons Nixon for “all crimes committed” from June 20, 1969, (opps, make that January) through August, 1974. Gemstone papers still floating around the world. Gandhi talks about the U.S.’ bloody deeds. October, 1974: Ford drops “extradition” of Hughes from the Bahamas. Explanation: “We dropped it because we knew he wouldn’t come”. THAT’S FOR SURE. “Four documents; four bodies twisting slowly in the breeze”. Lyndon Johnson: Sodium morphate “heart attack” at his ranch on the Pedernales River. Among his last words: “You know fellows, it really was a conspiracy….” Alexander Onassis’s plane crash at the “1000 foot Walter Reuther Level”, via a fixed altimeter, at Athens Airport. Eugene Wyman: California Democratic Party Chairman and JFK assassinatin pay-off bagman: Heart attack. L. Wayne Rector, Hughes’ double: Killed at Rothchild’s Inn of the Park, London. “Started the Shattering of the Mafia Economy”. March 18, 1973: Roberts called Hal Lipset, discussing all these matters publicly over a tapped phone. Lipset reported to Dean, who had hired him away from Graham, after they figured out who had taped the door at Watergate. (Mitchell: Katie Graham’s liable to get caught in a wringer”). March 21, 1973: Nixon said that on this date, he “received new evidence on Watergate”. Lipset bragged on T.V. that he had been the one to bring new evidence to Nixon. Meanwhile, back at the Washington Post, Katherine Graham had been feeding Woodward and Bernstein information for their articles. May 10, 1973: The first witness at the Watergate hearing running down the names on the CREEP organizational chart, mentioned the name at the top: Francis L. Dale, Chairman. Dale was never mentioned again during the rest of the trial. July 9, 1973: Roberts had used Al Strom’s Drift Inn bar as an open lecture forum for any and all and Al Strom taped it, for his boss, Katherine Graham. But Al was fair and told Roberts he was doing it, for which he was murdered on this date. August 1973: Murder of Chile, by Group of 40: (Rockefeller and his man Kissinger), working with the CIA and $8 million. Allende’s Chile. Admiral Noel Gaylor, Navel Intelligence, told Roberts 1 1/2 years earlier that Chile would get it: Roberts warned the Chilean consul in advance: Allegria, now “teaching” at Stanford. ITT had now extracted $125 million payment for its Chilean plants, a good return for their $8 million. Mafia controlled Chile’s annual inflation rate has set a world’s record. March 19, 1973: Dean to Nixon, nervously: “There is a cancer growing on the Presidency”. October 3, 1974: The Watergate trial, the cover-up of the cover-up got underway, starting Montini’s Bon Veniste, Onassis’s Neal, Graham’s Jill Volner. In the White House, Mafia Mayors Alioto, Daley and Beame met with the truth squad Ford, Scott and Griffin and Mike Mansfield, in secret. October 10, 1974: Tina Livanos Onassis Blandford Niarchos, sodium morphate poisoned by hubby Stravos, puked, slept and died of “heart attack”. Losing his son Alexander, took all the fun out of killing for Onassis. Who was there left to inherit the world empire he had dreamed of handing over to his son? December, 1974: Brezhnev had scheduled a meeting with Sadat. The outcome wouldn’t help the U.S. no matter how many trips Henry made to the mid-East with clean socks and blank checks. A new U.S. “secret weapon” was apparently used, a tiny speck of metal, introduced somehow into Brezhnev’s lymph system. It lodged in the cluster of lymph nodes over his heart, and there it was coated with layers of, much as an oyster created a pearl around an irritating grain of sand. Brexhnev’s lymph system clogged up: he got the flu and the meeting with Sadat was cancelled. Russian doctors X-rayed him and found a hugh lump in his chest. Then they put him before a Kirlian camera and checked his aura for cancer. No cancer. Note: Kirlian photography is the latest Russian diagnostic tool. It reveals the presence of disease physical or moral (it also detects lies). Brezhnev’s lump had to be treated with radiation therapy: hence the rumors he had cancer> It took six weeks to clear up. March, 1975: Onassis died. The Mafia Organization regrouped itself. Prince Fisal watched his uncle, King Fisal, silently watch the shift of Mafia Power and couldn’t stand it anymore. He shot his uncle, the spiritual leader of 60,000,000 Moslems, who had played ball with Onassis all along. South Vietnam’s Thieu, dubious about which way the Mafia cooky would crumble, now that Onassis was dead, decided the time was right for him to split. He abandoned the war effort, cursed the U.S., and split for Taiwan, his plane so overloaded with gold bullion that he had to dump some of it overboard. March 15, 1975: Roberts got the “Brezhnev Flu” and spent 2 weeks at U.C. Hospital. Doctors there without the Kirlian photography diagnostic technique, assumed the softball sized lump over his heart was cancer. It wasn’t. April, 1975: The Cambodian domino was no fun at all – it fell right over. Premier Lon Nol fled to exile in a Hawaiian suburb. CIA chief Colby, in a fit of spite, leaked the stolen story of CIA Hughes Glomar Explorer’s raising of the drowned Russian sailors from their sunken nuclear submarine. Purpose: To bag the Russians and also to halt criticism of the CIA by pointing out how noble, brave and self-sacrificing they are in their efforts to save us. The Russians are funny about their dead. They bitterly resented Colby’s game. They quietly went through a massive navel “war game”, the rehearsal of a nuclear attack on the U.S. Which brings us almost to the present time. Ford, Kissinger and Rockefeller squat like toads on the corpse of America. By the time of the Bi-centenial the stink may be unbearable. Ford now plans a propoganda mode version of his book, “Portrait of an Assassin”, which will reiterate the exploded cock and bull notion that Oswald was JFK’s lone assassin. With singular inept misunderstanding of the times, he seems to think Americans will take his word for it and be re- assured in the face of those crackpot conspiracy theories. He doesn’t seem to realize that he will be reminding or informing Americans of his role on the infamous Warren Commission. I hope this outline will make individual Gemstone papers easier to understand. IF YOU FOUND THIS OUTLINE INTERESTING: – You won’t be reading it in the papers for quite some time. At present the only way to spread this information here in America is hand to hand. Your help is needed. Please make 1, 5, 10, 100 copies or whatever you can, and give them to friends or politicians, groups, media. This game is nearly up. Either the Mafia goes or AMERICA goes. End of verbatim transcript – July, 1986. —–END OF GEMSTONE FILE ————————————————