50%/35% (for chargeable periods ending after 31 December 2015)
Branch tax rate 20% (from 1 April 2015, previously 21%)
Capital gains tax rate 0%/20% (from 1 April 2015, previously 21%)
Basis Worldwide, subject to election for branch exemption
Participation exemption Yes

− Carryforward Indefinite − Carryback One year
Double taxation relief Yes
Tax consolidation No, but loss relief is available and assets can be transferred intragroup without
crystalizing a gain or loss
Transfer pricing rules Yes
Thin capitalization/interest restriction rules Yes
Controlled foreign company rules Yes

Saudi Arabia Must Realize It Can’t Win the Feud with Qatar — TIME

The confrontation between Qatar and its three immediate neighbors has hit a wall. Efforts by Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, ably supported by Secretary of Defense James Mattis and Senate Foreign Relations Chairman Bob Corker has partly offset the President’s early ardent support of Saudi Arabia and its friends. The likelihood of President Trump overruling…

via Saudi Arabia Must Realize It Can’t Win the Feud with Qatar — TIME

Doha Qatar nytimes 29/11//2011 article

The New York Times
Middle East


Qatar’s Capital Glitters Like a World City, but Few Feel at Home

Bryan Denton for The New York Times
The Suq Waqif in Doha draws mostly tourists.


Published: November 29, 2011

DOHA, Qatar — Along a skyline that feels as ambitious as it is ephemeral, there is a building named for its design — the Tornado. The renowned architect I. M. Pei built a museum here in a quest for the essence of Islamic architecture. Another tower, built by another famous architect, is sheathed in an exoskeleton and suggests a Saracen helmet.


Times Topic: Qatar

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Bryan Denton for The New York Times

Many parts of Doha, Qatar, still have little pedestrian traffic.

“It’s a mimic of a city that could have been built anywhere,” an unimpressed Issa al-Mohannadi, an engineer who has been asked to create something different, declared as he gazed out his fourth-floor window. “What you’re seeing shouldn’t be our future.”

Doha is many things: a former backwater on the Persian Gulf that at one time had a pearling boat for every 350 residents; the capital of a country with enough natural gas to make those same people the wealthiest in the world today; and the seat of an emir determined to put his country on the map with brash foreign policy and the power of Al Jazeera, the satellite television news channel. It is also a city in search of an identity that still feels as shapeless as the tracts of sand interspersed between domed skyscrapers and the most improbable geometry.

The debate, of course, is not new. All the emerald cities on the Persian Gulf have to varying degrees struggled with tradition and modernity, as oiland gas created what a Qatari official called “Earth on Mars.” But nowhere else is the debate so pronounced, driven by so many billions of dollars, cluttered with so many visions and punctuated by so much criticism over what Doha, in some ways an accidental creation of a city, should look like.

Here is what it offers: a film festival, the World Cup in 2022, a new airport, a metro system and a Coffee Beanery with a menu in English, Arabic, Korean and Japanese. Here is what it lacks: an urban fabric, in a place where citizens are a tiny minority and legions of foreign workers toil in bleak conditions.

In the growing debate here, drawing in everyone from the emir’s wife to Qatar’s lone comedian, the question most often asked is whether a sense of the cosmopolitan can reflect the skyline and transcend the rootless globalism and commercialism that have so long stood as the Persian Gulf’s grasp at modernity.

Dubai, shimmering like a mirage, never had the money. Saudi Arabia, with a conservatism born of a Bedouin sense of life’s caprice, never had the ambition.

Doha now has both, and a determination to will a world capital into existence. “There is depth to the vision,” said Salman Shaikh, director of the Brookings Doha Center.

Abdul Aziz al-Mahmoud is a rarity in Qatar — a novelist whose book has become a best seller, by standards here, since it was published last month. Set in the 19th century, the novel delves into the struggle between the British and littoral tribes that inhabited the Persian Gulf. Three years in the works, the book fills a gap, he said, in perceptions.

“The region didn’t appear from nowhere because of oil,” he said in an interview. “People lived here; they had their troubles and their happiness. We were not oil. Oil came to change our lives, but people were always here.”

Testaments to that history feel like oases in a city of more than a million that numbered just 12,000 a century or so ago. Suq Waqif is one of them. Once a labyrinthine seaside market where Qataris traded fish and goats, the market was abandoned, then left to crumble. Five years ago it was rebuilt with a faithfulness to detail that recreated even its shoddiness. Exposed timber and reed roofs look worn and white-washed walls antique, even though they are not. Hawking everything from SpongeBob sandals to ceremonial Syrian swords, the shops are like the country: owned by Qataris and run by South Asians.

Mr. Mahmoud said he would take friends from abroad there to see a representation of the essence of a bygone culture, but he would not normally visit the suq.

“It’s about a sense of belonging,” Mr. Mahmoud said. “Qataris go there occasionally, but it’s not where they go and socialize and interact, no.”

Qataris number just 225,000 of a population of 1.8 million, and interaction between them and the rest feels as lifeless as the miles of plastic grass that line the boulevards in Education City. Mr. Mahmoud describes it as a “hidden enmity,” where Qataris feel comfortable not at the Islamic Museum or Jean Nouvel’s latest addition to the skyline, but rather in a majlis, one of the traditional segregated salons that stand as a fixture of social life.

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Magazine stories

The 20 Greatest Magazine Stories

They exposed State failure, they touched hearts, they highlighted humankind’s failure and arrogance. One was a profile and one proved a hoax!

‘Frank Sinatra Has a Cold’
By Gay Talese
April 1966, Esquire

This 15,000-word masterpiece ushered in ‘New Journalism’, and is considered one of the best profiles ever written. The fact that Sinatra refused to talk to Talese—every time he called, Sinatra’s minders said he had a cold—was probably the best thing that could have happened. To write it, Talese spoke to “at least a 100 people”, and used tips from them and stories he’d heard.

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‘Come What May’
By Arun Shourie & Shekhar Gupta
March 1983, India Today

THE first full-length story on the Nellie massacre, in which over 2,000 Muslims were killed during the Assam elections, Come What May came after a dribble of reports, and chronicled the entire tragedy in gory detail. It unravelled the attempts of the powers-that-be to bury the story and showed the negligence of the government. Arun Shourie and Shekhar Gupta reported on the carnage and made the news mainstream.

‘Consider the Lobster’
By David Foster Wallace
August 2004, Gourmet

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It was to be a fun assignment, to cover the annual Maine Lobster Festival for Gourmet. But David Foster Wallace did it the way only he knows. He detailed the cruelty with which lobsters are caught and killed so graphically that many lost their appetite for them. What was to be a PR story turned the world’s attention towards the poor lobsters. It was written with Wallace’s sharp wit and flourishes. Later, his genius was immortalised in Infinite Jest.

By John Hersey
August 1946, New Yorker

Set in the aftermath of the nuclear bomb being dropped over Hiroshima, the article is a cataclysmic narrative of six survivors of the incident. Hersey spent three weeks in Japan interviewing survivors. The article occupied almost the complete issue of the New Yorker when it came out, a first for what is essentially a cultural and literary magazine.

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Hitler Diaries Discovered
April 22, 1983, Stern

In the April of 1983, German magazine Stern caught its biggest break. Their star reporter had discovered a trove of Hitler’s personal diaries. The magazine claimed that the diaries, which had no previous records, would change the way one perceived Hitler’s life. Two weeks after the diaries were published, they were exposed as fakes. They’d been written by a small-time crook called Konrad Kujan. The hoax remains one of the biggest scandals in magazine history.

‘The Kentucky Derby is Decadent and Depraved’
By Hunter S. Thompson
June 1970, Scanlan’s Monthly

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Radia Tapes
November 2010, Outlook

The release of the 140 tapes of lobbyist Niira Radia led to the uncovering of one of the biggest political scandals, exposing the behind-the-scenes deals between politicians, top journalists and industrialists. It exposed the deep nexus bet­ween the government and ind­ustry lobbyists, showing for the first time how negotiations with the government take place in the country.

‘AIDS: The Agony of Africa’
By Mark Schoofs
November1999, The Village Voice

The seven-part article, an analysis of AIDS and its effects in Africa, won the rep­orter a Pulitzer prize. The piece chronicles in harrowing detail the lives of hiv-positive persons in Africa, explaining why the disease has so sev­erely affected the lives of people in Africa and nowhere else.

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Bhopal Gas Tragedy
Raghu Rai, 1984

Much has been written about the Bhopal gas tragedy, but what helped connect the public to shattering loss of hundreds of lives and families was this photo feature by Raghu Rai. The black-and-white pictures gave a face to the tragedy and became its defining portrayal.

‘Armoire of Shame’
By Franco Giustolisi and Alessandro De Feo
1994, L’Espresso

Several documents exposing war crimes committed in Italy by Nazi fascists were locked for almost 50 years by Italian diplomats fearing that disclosure would damage relations with Germany. When the armoire was finally opened, Giustolisi was the first one to unveil the crimes, calling for a special parliamentary investigation. There was a public outrage but in the end the government squashed the findings.

‘The History of the Standard Oil Company’
By Ida Tarbell
1908, McClure’s Magazine

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Often called one of the most extensive pieces of investigative journalism ever written, this report resulted in the break-up of the oil giant. Tarbell spent several months collecting evidence about the wrongdoings and fraudulent practices the oil giant had indulged in over the years. This report also inspired many journalists to unhesitatingly write on big industries.

‘The Runaway General’
By Michael Hastings
June 2010, Rolling Stone

In 2010, Hastings interviewed Gen Stanley McChrystal, a celebrated tough-guy military leader, in Afghanistan. The interview led to the general being eased out for having made derogatory comments about the Obama administration. The general later said he was quoted out of context.

‘Mother Earth, Mother Board: Wiring the planet’
By Neal Stephenson
1996, Wired

This piece reveals the physical underpinning of the virtual world. It chronicles how the trans-cables, for what we now know as the Internet, were laid. The article reads like a sci-fi thriller and was written at a time when Google and Yahoo were just taking baby steps.

‘Operation Blue Star: Night of Blood’
By Shekhar Gupta
August 1984, India Today

The Golden Temple only saw a handful of journalists on the fateful night of Operation Blue Star. Shekhar Gupta happened to be there. His account of the events that night are regarded as some of the best pieces of journalism in the country. The story took the reader through all aspects of the military operation, including what happened on the ground as well as what plan and tactics the soldiers followed to clear the Sikh temple of terrorists.

‘Have You Ever Tried to Sell a Diamond?’
By Edward J. Epstein
1982, The Atlantic

In this expose, Epstein explains why the diamond is one of the most valuable commodities in the world today. It talks about a market controlled by cartels which artificially control the prices of diamonds sold in most Western countries. It also expl­ains how the Russia has now come to dominate the diamond market and taken over completely.

‘Democracy on the Take’
By Julie Strawn and Charles G. Hogan
December 1984, Der Spiegel

The seizure of the files of one of Germany’s biggest companies, Flick Industrial Holdings, in 1981, was not expected to reveal much. Instead, what the police found led to one of the biggest corporate scandals in Germany. The files uncovered the real scope of corporate influence on post-war Germany and told how German corporations secretly bankrolled every major political party in the country to receive benefits such as tax breaks, and favourable appointments and policies.

As the World Burns
June 2005, Mother Jones

The world has just recently realised the gigantic problem that is global warming. The Kyoto protocol was one of the first attempts by countries to do something about it, an attempt which can only be des­cribed as a failure. This report speaks of the disastrous effects climate change has, and will have, on the world if something is not done about it.

Coverage of the Veerappan Kidnappings
August 2000, Nakkeeran

The series of interviews which journalist R. Gopal did for the Tamil magazine gave the world its first few glimpses into the world that the famous bandit inhabited. After the interview was published, Gopal was jailed by the Jayalalitha government for withholding information about Veer­­­appan, who was still a fugitive in the jungle.

‘I Saw Ben Barka Get Killed’
By Jacques Derogy and Jean-François Kahn
January 1966, L’Express

Ben Barka, a major Moroccan figure of the Third World and anti-colonial movement who was collaborating with figures like Che Guevara and Malcom X “disappeared” while on exile in Paris. The two investigative journalists wrote a powerful piece in which they highlighted the contradictions about his disappearance and the possible political motives behind his killing. A scandal erupted and debated investigations followed.

So Why is Narendra Modi Protecting Amit Shah?
By Rana Ayyub
July 17, 2010, Tehelka

This report by Rana Ayyub, who has done exemplary journalism in exposing the Gujarat genocide of 2002 and its aftermath, detailed the involvement of Amit Shah, then home minister of the state, in the Ishrat Jahan fake encoun­ter. Her reports led to the Supreme Court agreeing with the CBI to shift Shah’s case out of Gujarat.

Compiled by Arushi Bedi and Pietro Reviglio



Why Valencia is Spain’s best-kept TEFL secret

Posted in Teaching Abroad

If you draw a right angle between Madrid and Barcelona, straight out west to its Mediterranean coast, on its apex you land in what is arguably Spain’s most overlooked city. Here, wedged between tourist beach towns and a shipping port sits Valencia.

Sure, it’s well-known, high up on the list of most people’s Spanish geography knowledge, but infrequently visited; its population fluctuates during festival season, yet visitor levels fall in the interims. Most tourists skip it for the southern Costa del Sol, Gaudi-infused Barcelona, or the romantic Seville.

That’s exactly why, as a TEFL teacher, it’s the best place to live and work.

Just like the rest of Southern Europe, the demand for CELTA (or equivalent!) qualified teachers is booming, yet the current numbers are low. That makes Valencia one of Spain’s last untapped TEFL markets; a city not only known for its flavoursome seafood dishes and wild festivals, but also for technology, science and innovation.

It’s the kind of place where being hit in the face by a flying tomato is just as much as an authentic cultural experience as visiting the planetarium. Where dodging five-story tall, burning objects is among the city’s favourite past times. Where the main language spoken is unique to its region.

The last Wednesday in August marks the famous Tomatina festival, where thousands of stain-loving pilgrims in disposable, white clothes, descend on the nearby town of Buñol to hurl tomatoes at each other.

Like the running of the bulls in northern Spain, and the zealous Holy Week processions in its south, La Tomatina is one of the country’s ultimate ‘bucket list’ experiences.

Legend has it that the messy tradition began with an infuriated parade participant, who began a massive food fight when he was knocked off a float.

Now, 145, 000 kilograms of out-of-date tomatoes are shipped into Buñol – population 9,000 – in preparation for the day-long event. The population briefly rises to 40,000, the majority of visitors Australian, British and Japanese.

Back in the city centre, however, there’s an equally as crazy event, that’s not nearly as well-known as its squashed vegetable-throwing neighbour.

Las Falles – a weeklong event in which the Valencians parade handmade, paper-mâché statues filled with fireworks through the streets – overtakes the city in March. The constructions, called ninots, are satirically inspired – last year’s Falles included a depiction of Barack Obama and Vladimir Putin dancing The Nutcracker.

The City of Arts and Sciences
With a population of just over a million, Valencia is Spain’s third-largest city. To its south sits the world-renowned City of Arts and Sciences, a cultural and architectural complex that features a planetarium, botanic garden, theatres, aquarium and sports centre.

Two sides of the coin. On one, the crazy, vibrant, borderline barbaric festivals. The other; technology, advancement, innovation, high-quality language schools and a booming port industry.

Everything in Valencia comes in pairs, the city is even bilingual.

Both Castilian Spanish and Valencian are recognised here, yet, like the rest of Spain, there’s an increasing pressure to acquire English proficiency.

The best way to make a start teaching English in Valencia is to, firstly, get qualified there. Standards for English teachers are rising and, more and more, students are expecting their teachers to come certified.

Our school is the only one in the entire province accredited to run the CELTA, and is also one of the most prestigious in the country. And, with its high standing come high connections; meaning fresh graduates are often snapped up by local academies.

The Spanish have a word for it: enchufes. Literally translated, it means ‘plugs’, and the Valencia centre has a lot of them. Towards the end of the course, students are included in a free (yes, completely!) job placement service, aligned with 35 different schools throughout the city.

It’s old world Spain mixed with modern Europe, immense fiestas attended by forward-thinking innovators; Valencia is one of the Iberian Peninsula’s best kept secrets.

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Hse Practice Guide On Domestic, Sexual And Gender Based – Tusla

Social Work Students At Tcd And Ucd Shows That Minority Ethnic Women Are At Increased Risk Of Domestic Violence And Or Sexual Feelings Of Shame, Stigma , Guilt And Humiliation Yana, North Cork Domestic Violence Project, Mallow. http://www.tusla.ie/uploads/content/Domestic_Practice_Guide_on_DSG_bassed_violen..

Estonian Films 2014-2015 – Eesti Filmi Instituut

Uania Are Deported By Soviets To Siberia, Among Them Philosophy Student Erna, A Happily Married And Humiliation, Erna Never Loses Her Sense Of Freedom And Hope Of Returning To Homeland Cherry Tobacco Is Film About A Small Town Girl Laura Who Is Always Bored Her Mother Yana Esipovich, Tatjana Manevskaja. http://filmi.ee/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/EFI_filmiraamat_2015_web_sp..

Why Are Australian Women Still Being Penalised For Getting Their

30 Apr 2015 Why Are Australian Women Still Being Penalised For Getting Their Periods But The Last Time We Really Talked About It At The Federal Level Was In 2013, When A Student From Perth Began A Petition To Abolish It They Aimed To Stop The “ritual Humiliation Of Women” After Claims By Yana Dollparts Says. http://junkee.com/why-are-australian-women-still-being-penalised-for-getting-the..

International Moments – Ovpia – Indiana University

8 Jul 2013 Yana Hashamova, Associate Professor And Director Of The Slavic Center American Students Hold A More General (abstract) View Of The “positive Through The Woman’s Eyes As She Is Subjected To Harrowing And Humiliating . http://ovpia.iu.edu/blog/..

Download A Copy Of Our 2017 Program – Shadows Of The Mind Film

13 Feb 2017 Struggle Through Humiliation, Degradation And Despair While Attempting To Schizophrenia Through A Female Character- Many Of Them Are Students Panel Discussion With You Are Not Alone Project ( Yana). http://www.shadowsfilmfest.com/PDF-2017/Shadows%20Program%202017.pdf..

Re Ections On Zaha Hadid – Serpentine Gallery

Yana Peel Julia Peyton-jones Miuccia ‘muslim’ And ‘woman’ In A Way None Of Her Contemporaries Would Be Prefixed By Desire To Publicly Humiliate Or Berate You But Once I Students Strived, Struggled And Absorbed Her Standards . http://www.serpentinegalleries.org/sites/default/files/downloads/zh-booklet-repr..

The Countertraffickers The New Yorker

5 May 2008 Rotaru’s Brother Is A Student, And Has A Night Job As A Cook On The Outskirts Of Odessa, I Met A Ukrainian Woman Named Yana, Who, Improbably, Had Been Trafficked To Moldova For Them, That’s So Humiliating If They Go . http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/05/05/the-countertraffickers..

News Consumption And Anti-Western Narratives In Russia A Case

1 Mar 2017 It Uses Results From A Survey Of Students At A Moscow University To [google Scholar]; Taratuta 2014 Taratuta, Y (2014) ‘tat’ Yana By Western Desire To Weaken And Humiliate Russia (against Just 6% With 35% Being Male And 65% Female (the Gender Balance Within The Target Population Is Unknown). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09668136.2016.1274019..

Canadian-Israeli Detained For Four Days For Army Desertion The

5 Sep 2012 30-year Old Yana Gorelik, Visiting Israel, Misses Her Cousin’s Wedding While Illustrative Photo Of A Female Prison Guard At The Neve Tirza Release From The Idf, But Was Then “humiliated” By Being Handcuffed And Super-conservative Prageru Aims To Arm Pro-israel Students For Their Campus ‘wastelands’. http://www.timesofisrael.com/canadian-israeli-detained-for-four-days-for-army-de..

Bbc News Africa Nigerians Go Crazy For A Title

1 Aug 2007 One Woman Disputed Whether It Was Solely A Nigerian Phenomenon Once The Aid To A Former (nigerian) Senate President Hurriedly Intervened And Halted The Speaker In A Students’ Meeting, To Every The Regulos Were Humiliated–some Arrested And Even Killed After Being Yana Badejoko, London,uk. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6924870.stm..

Abstract Book 2014 – Awer-Center

Is There Any Significant Relationship Between University Students’ General Relationships’ Believes’, Female Students At Islamic Azad Uneversity, Shirvan Branch, Shirvan, Iran Theme Was Humiliation Which Was Developed From The Sub-themes Of Yana Ivanovna Sipovskaya, State Academic University Of Humanities, . http://www.awer-center.org/abstracts/PSYSOC-2014%20Abstracts%20Book.pdf..

2 The Nature And Conditions Of Engagement Engaging Schools

Engaging Schools Reviews Current Research On What Shapes Adolescents’ School Engagement And Motivation To Learn—including New Findings On Students’ . https://www.nap.edu/read/10421/chapter/4..

R&E Cover Winter 2012 Pmd – Review & Expositor

By Pamela R Durso, Executive Director, Baptist Women In Ministry, Atlanta By Stephanie Nash, Mdiv Student At Logsdon Seminary, Abilene, Texas Daughters’ And Brothers Avenged Their Sisters’ Humiliation And Male Cousins 1 Doron Ben-ami And Yana Tchekhanovets, “the Lower City Of Jerusalem On The Eve. http://rande.org/esubscriber/Winter%202013.pdf..

June 18, 2017 The Inside Story Of Trump Chief Strategist Steve

Company Ceos Yana And Jimmy Stage Elaborate Spectacles Where Their Foreign Employees Are A Depressed University Student Disappears Vigilante Groups That Track Down, Beat Up & Humiliate Men & Women They Believe To Be Gay. http://www.cbc.ca/passionateeye/includes/articles/..

The Tribe Review Sbs Movies – Sbs Tv

16 Jun 2015 Soon He’s Helping Pimp Out Two Female Students (who Seem Perfectly Willing To Comply) To Truck Drivers, And Helping To Ambush And Viciously . http://www.sbs.com.au/movies/review/tribe-review..

Exclusive Home Office Will Shut Door On ‘Plastic Brits’ The

1 Jan 2012 The Other Is Another Ukrainian Woman, Yana Stadnik, Who Like Her Compatriot Came Here In 2007 Ostensibly As A Sparring Partner For British . http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/olympics/exclusive-home-office-will-shut-door..

Photo Essay The Dangers Of Being Gay In Russia – Newsweek

10 Feb 2014 Yana Petrova, Left, Embraces Her Girlfriend Elena Davydova The Victim Is Sexually Humiliated And Tortured, While Everything Is Filmed, Posted Like Many Other Students Who Are Lgbt, Sergei Starov Fears That His Sexual He Was Was Married To A Woman For Five Years But Came Out After He Was Divorced. http://www.newsweek.com/photo-essay-dangers-being-gay-russia-228592..

Showdown In Lagos Delta Airlines Violating Nigerian Security

8 Jun 2017 Bags Searched In Front Of You In Public By Another Person Is Considered Humiliating At Least 29 Students Die In An Attack On A Federal College In Buni Yadi, Near The Girls Secondary School, Yana, Killing A Five-year Old Girl. http://viewfromthewing.boardingarea.com/2017/06/08/showdown-lagos-delta-airlines..

Prostate Cancer Humor – Yananow Org

When The Site Was Set Up Yana Was Simply An Acronym For You Are Not Alone Men — And Their Women — Could Smile A Bit About The Absurdity Of What They Are Funny With Complete Honesty, No Matter How Humiliating Or Self-incriminating To Mac By A Marine Flight Instructor When He Was But A Marine Student Aviator. http://www.yananow.org/troopc.shtml..

The Night It Happened Huffpost

24 Oct 2016 My Mom Asked Me Humiliating, Intrusive Questions Of Sexual Assault Victims Every Year By Placing Blue Post-its On Random Student’s Lockers, And I Exited My Class To Find One Slapped Onto Mine ‘it Happens’ Sexual Assault Series By Yana Mazurkevich The Reality Of Being A Woman — By The Numbers. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/the-night-it-happened_us_580e5651e4b099c4343..

Doctor Who Masters Characters – Tv Tropes

The Master Was The Doctor’s Friend (or Maybe More) When They Were Students At The Academy, And The Doctor Still Derek Jacobi’s Master – Professor Yana . http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Characters/DoctorWhoMasters..

Petition Demand South African Mayor Stops Invasive And Degrading

These Students Can Only Keep Their Scholarship If They Remain Virgins, Which Means In South Africa, Where Woman Are Meant To Have Equal Rights As Men, Such An When Other Girls Their Age Are Getting The Bursaries Without The Humiliation Of Yana K Ukraine A Year Ago Send Name Not Displayed United Kingdom. http://www.thepetitionsite.com/takeaction/618/088/552/..

Jane Baldwin, Author At Capital Critics’ Circle Le Cercle Des

Mollser (rachel Gleason), The Sickly Girl On The Verge Of Death, Is Symbolic Of Society’s To Spend Their Last Night Stateside Playing A Sadistic And Humiliating Game At The Leningrad Institute Of Theatre Under Boris Zon, Who Was A Former Student Laurie Fyffe (11); Barbara Gray (5); Herbert Simpson (4); Yana Meerzon (1) . http://capitalcriticscircle.com/author/jame-baldwin/page/2/..

Grin And Abhor It The Truth Behind ‘Service With A Smile’ – Working

4 Feb 2013 She Co-edited With Barbara Ehrenreich The Book Global Woman, Of Feeling Obligated To Smile Through Humiliating Comments, That Marks This Work And Student Debt Have Been Published In The Atlantic, The Nation, Yana Kunichoff · Moshe Z Marvit · Rachel Luban · Shaun Richman · Jeremy Gantz . http://inthesetimes.com/working/entry/14535/grin_and_abhor_it_the_truth_behind_s..

New Haven Review

The Play’s Strength Is The Appeal Of Its Roles For Middle-aged Female Actors, Able To New Plays Works, In Some Cases Never Seen Before, By Ysd Students That In Collisions, Yana Birÿukova And Michael Commendatore Made The Action The Key Role Of Shylock, Staged The Humiliating Conversion Scene That The Jewish . http://www.newhavenreview.com/..

Femen, Ukraine’s Topless Warriors – The Atlantic

28 Nov 2012 That Message Notwithstanding, Yana Averred That She Had No Intention Of Murdering The Patriarch He Would Have Been Humiliated Religion Is Moral Persecution That Aims To Drive Women Into Slavery The Organization Has Expanded From A Handful Of University Students Hailing From Eastern Ukraine To . https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/11/femen-ukraines-topless..

Exclusive ‘No One Stayed Behind With Katie To Help With The

21 Aug 2016 It’s Taylor’s View, Nonetheless, That Katie Won Monday’s Fight, Just As It Is His View That She Also Won The Fights Against Yana Alekseevna In April . http://www.independent.ie/sport/other-sports/boxing/exclusive-no-one-stayed-behi..

Bellows Regina Belugina Yana

Young Nude Females With Shaved Pussy Vguide Sex Video Young Mother Son Fuck Hypnotic Porn Star Dose Anal Southern Girl Pussy Fuck Japanese Girl Gaim . http://bluebeamservices.com/tun/?p=441028..

The Bulgaria 2010 Review Crime And Courts – Novinite Com – Sofia

6 Jan 2011 Nikolov’s Wife Mari Yana Was Sentenced To 14 Years Of Jail Time Bulgarian State In Strasbourg, Complaining Of Humiliating Treatment By The Police Tsvetanov, Convicted Of Murdering A 21-year-old Female College Student. http://www.novinite.com/articles/123903/The+Bulgaria+2010+Review%3A+Crime+and+Co..

Graywolf Press

Yana Makuwa, Editorial Assistant Steven Woodward When I Was A Young Girl, My Mother Carried Me Out Of A Grocery Store As I Ex-grunt To A Pompous College Student, A Middle-aged Loser To A Russian Oligarch Provides One Measure Of The Figure “whose Humiliating Likeness To Mankind Has Led Certain Muddled. https://www.graywolfpress.org/sites/default/files/GWFall17cat_lores.pdf..

“Healers Of Wounded Souls” The Crisis Of Private Life In – Qmplus

Also Characterized By Silence About Female Trauma It Balanced Troubled Male Personalities With Nevertheless Shocking And Humiliating The First Months Of The Student Of Architecture, Young, Beautiful, And Not Yet Married 63 As Both A Woman And A 34; Tat’ Yana Oks, “vysokii Bereg,” Ogonek, No 35 (1945); Asker. http://test.qmplus.qmul.ac.uk/pluginfile.php/206385/mod_resource/content/1/Krylo..

Stalking The Bogeyman – New York Rep

In The Spring Of 2003, David Holthouse Was An Award-winning Journalist But No One Knew That David Had Two Incredibly Dark Secrets — First, That 25 Years Ago He . http://www.newyorkrep.org/stalking-the-bogeyman/..

Dvd & Blu-Ray Releases March 8, 2016 – Horror News Network

8 Mar 2016 Starring Grigoriy Fesenko, Yana Novikova, Rosa Babiy Teenage Sergey ( Grigoriy Fesenko), A New Student At The Boarding School, Realizes Revenge From Those Who Have Abused And Humiliated Defenseless Females. http://www.horrornewsnetwork.net/dvd-blu-ray-releases-march-8-2016/..

Buddhist Feminism (Part 3)

7 Mar 2012 The Female Yogi, “yogini”, Who Channels Her Sexual Energy Into Meditation Was Just A Student Monk He Was Visited By An Ugly, Old Woman Who Asked If The Development Of A Feminist Dharma, A “stree- Yana” Or “women’s Vehicle”, Better Yet, Let Us Simply Put Away Humiliation Of Either Sex In Favor Of The . https://ieet.org/index.php/IEET2/more/hughes20120307..

No Confidence

10 Oct 2015 Yana Mazurkevich The Ithacan Ever Recall A Female Student Who Is Not Of Color [being Treated Es, Attorney’s Fees, Costs, Humiliation,. https://tnuqq21kt870t8n1egkbrmbr-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015..

Pdf Version – Us Department Of State

Child Abuse; Reports Of Trafficking, Primarily Of Women For Sexual Exploitation And Men And For Example, An Examiner Allowed 33 Students To Pass A Traffic Examination For A Bribe Humiliation Of A Person Because Of Gender, In Such Cases Rejected Yana Toom’s Defamation Suit Against The Internal Security Service. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236732.pdf..

Hillary Clinton’s Startling Decision To Run For Senate Set Her On A Path

22 Jul 2016 Endured The Public Humiliation Of Her Husband’s Affair With A White House Intern ( Yana Paskova For The Washington Post) In 1966, George Wallace’s Wife Had Been The First Woman Elected Governor In The Deep South Man She Met In The Student Lounge At Yale Law School In The Autumn Of 1970. http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/national/2016/07/22/from-spouse-to-senator/..

2015 Astr Conference Schedule – American Society For Theatre

Pale Pou Fanm Ayisyen Yo Speaking For The Haitian Women –youngji Jeon Mentoring Graduate Students For The Job Market — Yana Meerzon (university Of Toronto) Tell Nobody Pulp Fiction And The Shame- Humiliation Response. http://www.astr.org/?page=15_Schedule..

Salama, Ashraf M And El-Attar, M S (2010) Student Perceptions Of

Of The Jury And Its Ac C Eptability To Arc Hitec Ture Students Keywords And Female Jurors, Male And Female Students, And Rac Ial Se E Ms To O C C Up Y A N A Ve Ra G E P O Sitio N A C Ro Ss The Re Sp O Nse S Humiliation, To Name A Few. http://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/50234/1/Salama_El_attar_Student_Perceptions_of_..

Controlling The Kanjisphere The Rise Of The Sino-Japanese

Character Dictionary, Yana Fumio Proposed That Around Three Thousand Both Male And Female Students To Apply, Provided That Applicants Possessed A Stage Of The Motherland, This Has Caused Us Immeasurable Anguish And Humiliation”. https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/7EEE1169..

Human Rights-Holocaust Germany 2017 Smu Adventures

19 Apr 2017 To This Day, We Don’t Know The Full Extent Of Humiliation, Torture And Death On March 14, 2017, Smu “holocaust Germany” Student Travelers . http://blog.smu.edu/studentadventures/category/human-rights-holocaust-germany-20..

Tea With President Mandela Alumnus Andrew Stobo Sniderman On

16 Mar 2017 Kamukwamba, Chandni Gopal, Yana Van Was Dismissed When She Announced To Her Congregants That She Would Be Marrying A Woman. https://www.law.utoronto.ca/news/tea-president-mandela-alumnus-andrew-stobo-snid..

Ballet «Spartacus», 5 April 2017 At 19 00 – Novat

In The Action Student Wednesdays Répétiteurs Vladimir Grigoriev, Tatiana Kladnichkina, Alexander Kurkov, Yana Serebryakova Slave Traders Separate The Male And Female Prisoners For Sale To Rich Roman Patricians Spartacus Shall Pay With His Death For The Humiliation That He, Crassus, Was Forced To Undergo. http://novat.nsk.ru/en/afisha/performances/detail/913134/..

Dvd And Blu-Ray Releases March 8, 2016 – Dread Central

8 Mar 2016 She Must Seduce A Business Man, Tempt A Young Innocent Woman At A Nightclub And Slaughter Her Way Through But She Soon Finds Herself Drugged And Humiliated To Relive Their Pasts The Students Film Their Own Sci-fi Extravaganzas With The Increasingly Grigoriy Fesenko, Yana Novikova, Rosa Babiy. http://www.dreadcentral.com/news/154911/dvd-blu-ray-releases-march-8-2016/..

I’m Right Here! The Disqualified Heroine Oneshot Fanfiction Of

They Don’t Even Do Skin Interaction So Chill Down Yana >○< + As Soon As I Hey!, Stop Crying I Just Don't See You As A Woman Just Yet + Yuki,evvveer . https://www.wattpad.com/77073784-i%27m-right-here-the-disqualified-heroine-onesh..

Education In Defense Of A Free Society Commentary

And If This Were Indeed True, As Some Philosophers From Plato To Santa- Yana Have It Is Just As Important To Sharpen The Students' Understanding Of A Free Society, Man Of Europe” That Invited So Much Humiliating Pity From Friends And Allies In Moreover, It Is Not Clear That Britain's Second Female Prime Minister Is Made . https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/education-in-defense-of-a-free-socie..

Rent Tamil Language Movies And Tv Shows On Dvd And Blu-Ray

Rent Tamil Language Movies And Tv Shows On Dvd And Blu-ray 1-month Free Trial! Fast, Free Delivery No Late Fees. https://dvd.netflix.com/BrowseGenres/Tamil-Language/2576..

Where Love Is Illegal – A Witness Change Project

22 Year Old Jamaican Jherane Patmore Describes Herself As A Cis Woman, Pansexual 28 Year Old Social Work Student Abby Sáde (surname Withheld) Is A Lesbian Living To A Criminal Humiliated And Defeated In The Backseat Of A Police Vehicle To Some Friends I'm Yana The Cis Female Pan Who's Okay With Their Sexuality. http://whereloveisillegal.com/..

Colonial Mozambique, An Inside View The Life History Of

Have Explicitly Challenged The Assumption Held By Most Students Of Auto- Biography African History Or Women's Studies Enjoyed Any Standing As Legitimate Academic Crowd Shouted “hamba Kowan' Yana Kadi Uqeda Inkuku Zetu Which Is Zulu For Did Not Protect Him From Being Beaten, Humiliated Or Arrested (ibid 107-. http://www.ces.uc.pt/estilhacos_do_imperio/comprometidos/media/ISAACMAN%2C%20All..

Nnamdi Azikiwe – All News, Facts & Stories Naij Com

Hadi Sirika Ministan Sufurin Jiragen Sama Yace Yana Iya Ajiye Aiki Idan Ba A Man Who Recently Returned To The Country Has Been Humiliated And Disgraced At A 400 Level Female Student Of The Nnamdi Azikiwe University (unizik), Was On . https://www.naij.com/tag/nnamdi-azikiwe.html..

Women Armed Conflict And Occupation-An Israeli – Peacewomen

Women's Peace Organizations In Israel, Human Rights Organizations, A Special Thanks To Talma Bar-din, Yana Kanopovoa, Adv Students And Many Others 2 A (3) Abuse And Humiliation Is Completely Forbidden, And Special Attention . http://www.peacewomen.org/sites/default/files/womenarmedconflict_israel_shadow_r..

The Chankas And The Priest A Tale Of Murder And Exile In Highland

Who Were The Indian Women Subjected To Albadán's Lust, And How Were Their Lives Together With Frank Meddens, A Fellow Student From The University Of London, Of The Lower Chanka Guachaca, Tomay Guaraca, Quichua, Caha, Yana Cross, Create A Collective Trauma Of Humiliation And Pain For The Community. http://www.psupress.org/books/titles/978-0-271-07122-0.html..

Yana Tries Thai Tea By Professor-Potate On Deviantart

24 Aug 2013 Thai, The Self-proclaimed Greatest Goo Girl Of All Time, Was After A Glance Behind Her Clued Her In On The Culprit Behind This Humiliating . http://professor-potate.deviantart.com/art/Yana-Tries-Thai-Tea-395633569..

First Nations News & Views Sliammon Protest Singer, 'Clowns' And

2 Apr 2012 On March 25, 1916, A Yahi Indian Of The Yana People Named Ishi Died Of Several Females, The Bfc Said, Were Overfed During Winter And Died While Aclu Sues Bia-run School For Publicly Humiliating Navajo Student For . http://nativeamericannetroots.net/diary/1315..

Films About African And Middle Eastern Women – Movies (Fiction) By

8 Dec 2015 This Guide Was Created By Peregrine Macdonald, Rutgers Sci Mlis Graduate Student Duty Makes These Young Men And Women Adversaries, But Duty Can't Overcome Their Haverim Shel Yanah Yana's Friends 2001, 1999 And Saba On Their Trip – A Humiliating Situation For The Devoted Wife And Mother. http://libguides.rutgers.edu/c.php?g=336887&p=2273078..

Blog — Emilie Zoey Baker

20 Nov 2016 Eric Stoltz Falls In Love With A Blind Girl, Played By Laura Dern Only To Be Humiliated And Belittled – I Wish I Could Encase You In The Strongest Metals Zines And Did Slam Workshops With The Primary And High School Students Dog On The Moon Will Join Emilie Zoey Baker, Sean M Whelan, Yana Alana, . http://www.emiliezoeybaker.com/blog/..

Russia Names The Beauty Who Will Fight For Title Of Miss World 2016

1 Nov 2016 Yana Is A Student Of The Tyumen State College Of Art, Where Studies Choreography She Has The Rank Of Master Of Sports In Dancing And . https://sputniknews.com/russia/201611011046967031-russia-miss-world/..

Human Rights In Bulgaria In 2015

Petrov, Yana Buhrer Tavanier Materials Bat Discrimination, Human Trafficking And Domestic Violence Against Women; Amending To Systematic Humiliation, Including In Public For Example, At A Professors, Students And Citizens Judges . http://www.bghelsinki.org/media/uploads/annual_reports/annual_bhc_report_2015_is..

Adolescent Bystanders Confront The Multifaceted Nature Of Bullying

After I Heard Her Story, I Read About Megan Meier, A Thirteen-year-old Girl Who Committed Suicide After Forced To Switch Schools Due To Humiliating Rumors That Were Spread About Her Online In Each Of Examine An Aspect Of Bullying), And The Researcher Reminded The Students To Answer Each Lei, Li, & Yana Wu ( 2007). http://mazziotti.uchicago.edu/journal/Krasne_T.pdf..

Between Je And Moi Staging The Heteroglossia Of Immigrant

Yana Meerzon Thus Begins The Story Of A Young Theatre Maker Forced To Become A “professional Immigrant”; It Is A Story Of Humiliation And Pride, Of Fashioning . https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/tric/article/view/24309/28125..

December 2012 108zenbooks

31 Dec 2012 Have Allegedly Violated Boundaries With Their (typically Female) Students That's Not To Say There Are No Female Perpetrators By The Way; The Statistics The Humiliation And Hurt Are Overpowering And Few Survive The Workplace Or History Of Mindfulness, You May Wonder Which Sutta Are We Yana-ing After!. https://108zenbooks.com/2012/12/..

Rate My Job Market Grading This Year's Mla Jil In German Pan

14 Sep 2013 I Hope This Generalist, If Female, Is Strong Enough To Live In North Dakota And Enjoy Students Who Are More “inspired” By The Adjuncts Whose . https://pankisseskafka.com/2013/09/14/rate-my-job-market-grading-this-years-mla-..

2011 Flux Factory

Whether You're A Scientist, Criminal Sleuth, Student, Or Professional Screen And Discuss The Process Of Creating “ Humiliation Of Cop In His House (2010), Yana Dimitrova And Angela Washko Cheap Paradise Of Familiar Tasks And Places Hockaday, A Rather Alienated Young Woman, Immediately Became Enthralled . http://www.fluxfactory.org/2011/..

Fall Winter 2016 – Iseees – University Of California, Berkeley

That The Order These Men And Women Died For Was The Democracy Finally Achieved Admit That Made Me, A Student Of The Postwar European Welfare Yana Skorobogatov (history) “mercy And Reform Appealing A Death Sentence In The Soviet Union, Event Was Abject, Farcical, And Completely Humiliating For Pis. http://iseees.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/u4/ISEEES_NL_Fall2016.pdf..

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Soviet Union and Afghanistanóbecame very clear by the end of the 1980s. Since Tajik poets and writers could not sympathize with Afghanistan politically, they focused on Afghan cultural figures such as poets and singers. Farzona, a poetess who in the late 1980s joined the opposition movement, writes in one of her poems, ìTo the Nation that Gave Birth to Ahmad Zohirî:17
O Afghan nightingale of Vatan,18 Motherland doesnít die,
Your singing restores life of her essence,
Still the song is coming from your bleeding throat
You are in me, until the end of times, until the end of times, until the end of times Ö 19
And in another poem:
Fostered by one melody,
We are not silent and we donít cry,
The voice of Zohir has to remain in the heart, For the blood to rise warm and seethe Ö
It is the spring of life Ö
Ö Which will wake us up. 20
During the glasnost period, Bozor Sobir, a famous Tajik poet and politician, gave a speech in parliament on penitence, arguing that it is shameful to wear medals won from killing your brothers. However, overtly anti-Soviet/Russian poetry did not appear until February 1990, when Soviet troops were deployed in Tajikistan to stop ìanti-Armenianî demonstrations, which resulted in death and injury to many Tajiks demonstrating against Kahar Makhkamov, the first secretary of the Tajik SSR. Bozor Sobir later wrote a poem called ìKneads the paste with blood,î dedicated to a Tajik youth killed during the February 1990 event in which two anti-Russianónot only anti-Sovietósentiments were clear:
Her friendship
Is the friendship of a wolf-killer with a sheep Ö
Her treachery should be exterminated, exterminated! I remember her words about brotherhood,
These words were about captivity Ö
Ö In todayís world,
Russia means
Blood of Armenians, blood of Georgians,
Blood of Moldavians, blood of Lithuanian
Blood of Azerbaijanis, blood of Tajiks Ö
Red communist tails crawl following her Duma Ö Ö Russia as a government,
As a state
As a policy
Russians sacrificed
More than any other peoples,
More than any other nation,
Creating an ocean
From the blood of Russian children
From the tears of Russian mothers,
Creating an ocean Ö
Ö While Russia was writing the red Leninist history, A Russian was left without his past Ö 21
This poem, which is quoted here only in part, illustrates a tendency to equate ìRussianî with ìSoviet.î Sobir does not make clear which of the two ìRussiasî he means until the end of the poem where he accuses ìRussia as a government, as a state, as a policyî which violated the rights of not only peoples of the USSR, but of Russians themselves. However, one can assume that the first part of this poem could have been used as an anti-Russian slogan, which drove the Russian speaking population out of Tajikistan.
The mythological image of the ìotherî in the case of Uzbeks and their ancestors was constructed by the Tajik literary and academic elite in the 1970s and 1980s, and was derived from the history of tensions between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan over the course of the 20th century. Uzbekistan as the ìevil stepfatherî was portrayed trying to prevent the ìbirthî of Tajikistan and deny its exist- ence as a nationóin other words, depriving Tajiks of what Yael Tamir has called the ìpromise of immortality.î22 In addition, the ìevil stepfatherî kept the two cities of Samarqand and Bukhara, which Tajiks considered theirs when the two Soviet republics were established in the 1920s.
After long debates about the controversial status of cities where both Tajik and Uzbek speakers lived, Uzbekistan sacrificed Khujand in order to keep Samarqand and Bukhara. With Tajik independence, the focus shifted from unresolved political issues between the two republics to cultural questions related to national myths. Extending Kaufmanís analogy of the nation as ìa
jealous godóto whom one pays homage, venerating its temples (monuments), relics (battle flags) Ö theology (including a mythical history),î23 poets and writers became the priests of both republics whose prayers (nationalistic literature) enticed its believers to a national ìjihad.î
Samarqand and Bukhara became an essential theme in Tajik literary mourning over the glorious past of the nationís lost cultural centers. The Uzbek elite, meanwhile, attempted to prove their right to the two cities. Debates over these themes were accompanied by acrimonious arguments about the national (Uzbek or Tajik) origin of famous historical figures such as Avicenna.
Four years before perestroika Bozor Sobir wrote a poem called ìMother Tongueî that mourned the lost national values of the Tajiks.
Everything he [the Tajik] had in this world he gave away
The lands of Balkh and Bukhara he had, he gave away
Honorable customs and collections of poems he had, he gave away, Throne of Samanids he had, he gave away.
His enemyóbeggarly in knowledge, ìDonishî of Sino took away,
His enemyódevoid of [his own] traditions, divan24 of Mavlono took away, His enemyóart dealer, the art of Behzod took away,
His homeless enemy took his place in his house.25
The enumeration of lossesónot only the territorial demarcation that gave Bukhara to Uzbekistan and Balkh to Afghanistan, but also the fall of the Samanid state in the 10th cen- tury26óreinforces the misery of the Tajiks. Their lands and cultural heritage (ìDonishî of Avicenna, the mystical poetry of Djalolidin Rumi, and the art of Behzod)27 were misappropriated by the ìother,î while ìhis homeless enemy took his place in his house.î Sobir then uses the heroic warriors of Iranian epic, Rustam and Suhrob (from Abulkhosim Firdousiís Shahmane, written at the end of 9th and beginning of 10th century), to remind contemporary Tajiks about the unbreakable links with their famous predecessors whose ìclubî they had let out of their hands:
He let the club of Rustam and Suhrob out of his hands Useless barbarians he made strong,
His own name as the grave of Rudaki was forgotten,
He glorified his assassins in the whole world,Low height of Mangit
Rose above the minaret of Khorasan,
Low steppes of Kipchak,
Became higher than the mountains of Badakhshan.
Ö In the eyes of those whose eyes are narrow, Years of oppression he saw
At times in flames,
At times in water,
Layer by layer with the burned [ruins] of Sogdian minaret he burned, burned, With collapsed walls of the Afrosiyab 28 gates he collapsed.29
In addition to the increasingly pejorative image of the oppressed Tajik who ìforgot his name,î burned with the Sogdian minaret, and collapsed with the gates of Afrosiyab, the image of the Uzbek seen as a ìMangit,î an ìassassin,î and a ìuseless barbarianî emerges.
The last dynasty of Uzbek emirs, the Mangit Dynasty (1753ñ1920) was, according to Tajik historians in the Soviet period, a ìcenter of religious obscurantism and political reaction.î30 Thus, Bozor Sobir primordializes the conflict, claiming that Tajiks had been oppressed by Uzbeks for at least two centuries. The idea of continuous conflict with Uzbek oppressors was explored in many literary works of this period, encouraging Tajiks to ìwake upî and pick up the ìclub of Rustam and Suhrobî against the oppressor.
Elaboration of this mythical ìotherî31 can be found in the short story, ìA Song of Some- one, Who Has a Noose Around his Neck,î32 by Bahmanyor, one of the most famous writers of the 1980s and 1990s who was a member of political club Darafshi Kovien (ìThe Banner of Kovaís Sonsî33) as well as the national patriotic movement Rastokhez. The story is of Abdulkadir, a musician and narrator of Tajik folk tales, who stands against the great conqueror Timur (ìthe iron lame manî), the Uzbek national symbol of might and glory. It is a perfect illustration of the ìevil stepfatherî myth. The story takes place on one of Samarqandís squares where the execution of Abdulkadir and the poet Kuhistani34 is about to take place. Timur, who sentenced them to death, comes to watch the execution but is irritated by the large number of people gathered on the squares of Samarqand. He interprets this as a sign of sympathy for two condemned, ìas if these charlatans are brothers to all Samarqandies.î35 Abdulkadir plays his last
song, reviving Timurís memories of peace and happiness as a child. He asks Abdulkadir what the name of the song is and the singer replies that it is a song of someone who has a noose around his neck:
The emir did not think some despicable street singer would dare to answer him in such a disrespectful way Ö him Ö Timur the Unconquerable. But he already perceived one truth: no matter how many people of this tribe he killed, how many pyramids he built out of their bodies, how many cities and villages he razed to the ground sowing with barley, these people would revive like steppe grass comes to life in the spring Ö He was about to order the release of the prisoners, but came to his senses and made a hand gesture to hang them!36
Thus Bahmanyor confirms and maintains the myth of the ìcultured, peace loving and poorî Persian-speaking Tajiks, who are opposed to the ìbarbarian, aggressive, and richî Turks. Like Bozor Sobir, Bahmayor uses a historical event to show the long history of the conflict. The author recognizes Timur as a great warrior, but then suggests that it is only when faced with great conquerors that Tajiks give in. And of course, in the end Tajiks regain their strength ìlike steppe grass comes to life in the spring.î As was typical of Tajik authors of this period, Bahmanyor also stresses discrimination against Tajik culture in Samarqand: ìPeople throng from all over the place, as if he [Abdulkadir] intended to distribute bread among hungry men and not sing.î37 Bread, one of the sacred symbols, is equated with the Tajik music that Samarqandies are ìhungryî for.
Besides mourning the loss of their cities, the Tajiks of Samarqand and Bukhara are portrayed as having lost their national identity. In the following poem by Loik Sherali (ìWhere the grave of Donish is?î38) the Tajiks of Bukhara are questioned about the grave of their famous Tajik predecessor:
In Bukhara, where sons of high ranking officials Are born by those who lost their path,
Are born by those who have stopped existing, Some are still deprived of their mother tongue,
To what extent are they deprived of their memory?
In Bukhara, where the Tajik lost his kinsmen, How much of memory of Donish is left?39
A similar theme is expanded in Bozor Sobirís poem ìBukharaî: Bukhara, with bitterness and regret I see,
That places of many of those who are dear to you,
As the place of Sino are empty in your arms.40
Language use for Samarqand and Bukharaís mixed population was a determining factor for oneís nationality. To continue speaking oneís ìmother tongueî under the rule of the ìevil stepfatherî meant keeping oneís national memory alive, according to Loik Sherali. By forgetting about Donish, one of the first pro-Russian enlightening thinkers, the poet accuses the citizens of Bukhara of forgetting who they are (They have ìlost their pathî) and what they represent. After being ìUzbekised,î in Loik Sheraliís terms, they ìstop existingî (line 3)óthat is, they have died as Tajiks.
In the process of reinforcing national identity based on historical accomplishments, elites of both Uzbekistan and Tajikistan debated the redistribution of not only their cities, but also of their mutual cultural heritage. Heated arguments around Avicennaís (Abuali Ibn Sino) national- ity, for example, took place during the celebration of his thousand-year anniversary in Bukhara in 1980. The idea that Sitora, the mother of the famous scientist and poet, was Uzbek was re- flected in the poetry and then the historiography of Uzbekistan. Tajiks responded in kind, as exemplified by Bozor Sobirís poem ìSinoís Scalpelî:
This one and that claims Sino is theirs
In order to lean a ladder against the roof of fame
But Sino has raised this roof so high,
That neither this nor that is able to lean his ladder against it Ö
The time, [when] Sejukid was riding his horse hard towards Kofien, Was riding his horse with an arrow and a deadly knife on his belt, The Tajik people Sinoís life-saving scalpel took in their hands, Life-saving knife the whole world took [in its hand].41
Loik Sheraliís poem echoed the same theme:
All lay claim ìHe belongs to our nations
S- an- so mother in such-and-such year gave him birth,
Another nation to the world of civilization
Did not give someone as omniscient as Sino Ö î
What are all these claims and cries for?
What are all these evidences and arguments for? Neither Arab, nor Uzbek he was,
But an all-knowing person he was.
Bukhara was the capital of Tajiks,
Buali [Sino] was born there.
Dari was his language, but he learned, Languages of all times and all peoples.42
Both poets begin with a humanistic reasoning that portrays Sino as an ìall-knowingî individual who belongs to the whole world. They both mock those who try to ìnationalizeî him. However, Bozor Sobir in the second quatrain and Loik Sherali in the third quatrain formulate their views on the national origin of Sino quite clearly. Sobir opposes Tajiks as life saviors and followers of Sino to the nomadic Seldjukids with their ìdeadly knifesî (line 6), while Loik Sherali states that Sino was born in ìBukhara, capital of Tajiksî and that his first language was Dari.
This construction of the ìotherî in the Tajik literatureóthe ìevil stepfatherî Uzbekistanówas reinforced in the late 1980s during the rise of the ethno-nationalism movement promoting the recognition of Tajiks in Uzbekistan. A public service cultural association of Tajiks and Tajik-speaking people, named ìSamarqand,î emerged in 1989 in Uzbekistan as a group devoted to the preservation of the Tajik language and advocacy of ìelementary equal rights not only for Tajiks but for everyone in the area.î43 They claimed that Uzbek authorities deprived Tajik Samarqandies the right to have the nationality ìTajikî as opposed to ìUzbekî designated in their passports. As a result of a five-day hunger-strike by Hayot Nemat, a poet and co-chairman of the organization, local authorities made an exception and allowed Tajik-speakers to change their nationality in their passports to Tajik. Two deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR supported ìSamarqand,î two of whom were the Tajik poets Loik Sherali and Gulrukhsor Safieva. Their proposal, ìOn Appointing a Parliament Investigation Commission to Study the Situation of
Tajiks and Tajik-speaking Peoples of the Uzbek SSRî was never discussed by the Congress of Peopleís Deputies. By that time, the rise of nationalism and ethnic conflicts around the USSR had convinced Gorbachev that ìnationalism and ethnic violence were products of elite manipula- tion rather than manifestation of genuine popular grievances or fears.î44 ìOn the edge of an abyssî45 military force had become the main device of control.
Among the regions of Tajikistan, the city of Khujand (formerly known as Leninabad) and the Khujandis were considered yet another ìotherî for two reasons. First, they were the ethnic kin to the Uzbek ìevil stepfather,î and as a result the ìhalf-brotherî Khujand had been able to monopo- lize political power in Tajikistan during almost all of the Soviet period. The people of other regions saw Khujand, which was not committed to full independence from Uzbekistan, as inca- pable of representing the interests of ìrealî Tajiks. Political dissatisfaction with the rule of this ìhalf-brotherî among elites of other regions (Zarafshan, Karategin, Khatlon, Badakhshan) was reinforced by the fact that Tajikistan was the poorest and weakest of the fifteen Union republics of the USSR. Second, during his rule, the ìhalf-brotherî had influenced cultural preferences by ìUzbekisizingî Tajikistan, even going so far as to impose an ìUzbekî dialect, as well as music, on the rest of the republic.
Thus Khujand, sacrificed by Uzbekistan in order to keep Samarqand and Bukhara, re- mained at the crossroads of national identities by legally being part of Tajikistan but at the same time closely related culturally to Uzbekistan.46 Throughout the Soviet period, representatives of the region occupied key political positions in Dushanbe. However, at the same time, it con- structed a pyramid of power in which ìeach ethno-regional group had its own economic, social, and political niche.î47 At the top of this pyramid was Khujand. In the 1970s, disruptions in the Soviet education system and economy, as well as a flourishing of corruption in Tajikistan, madej

almost impossible for representatives of other regions to affect the way the republic, and even their region, was ruled.
The first region that reacted against this system was the Khatlon (Kulyab) region, one of the poorest in the republic. In the beginning of the 1970s, Kasimov, a Khujandi, was appointed first secretary of the regional Party committee of Khatlon. A few days after his arrival in Kulyab, the capital of the region, his body was found hanging on a rope in one of the cityís hotels. As a result, the next first secretary appointed to Khatlon was of Kulyab origin. In the 1970s and 1980s, economic problems in most of the regions of Tajikistan, including parts of the mountain- ous Leninabad region, were increasing. Dissatisfaction with the government was transformed into a strong opposition, which by the end of the 1980s formed a variety of political movements. The political movements Oshkoro48 (established at the beginning of 1989 in Kulyab) and Bokhtar49 (Khovalin, 1989) wanted to unite the other regions of Tajikistan against the ìhalf- brotherî Khujand who ìasserted the interest of one region and prejudices against the others.î50 Bokhtar and Oshkoro characterized the Khujandis as ìhalf-Uzbeksî who were not able to repre- sent the interests of the majority of ìrealî Tajiks. ìIf justice will not be rendered in other words, if Party and governmental leadership will not be changed in favor of the majority of Tajiksí collisions, which ample evidence show are already taking place will increase.î51
The same processes were underway in the academic world. Over the course of glasnost, when some archives became accessible to the public, the process of revising and rewriting modern Tajik history began. Much of what was written during this time was based on archival documents that described the roles the ìheroesî and ìantiheroesî of the Tajik nation had played during the delimitation of the borders during 1920s. These new historical interpretations52 were contrary to the ìofficialî ìhalf-brotherî version. At the time, some of the Khujand elite (A. Rakhimbaev, F. Khodjaeva, A. Fitrat) were partisans of the ìGreat Turkestanî idea, while the representatives of other regions and cities (N. Makhsum from Karategin, Ch. Imamov from Zarafshan, Sh. Shotermurov from Badakhshan, and A. Mukhiddinov from Bukhara) wanted independence for Tajikistan. The culmination of this rediscovery of the past was a book by
Rahim Masov, History of the Crude Division,53 which revealed an anti-Khujand view of the events in the 1920s and which became an instant best-seller in Tajikistan.
In close relation to politics, the cultural life of Tajikistan before perestroika was strongly affected by the preferences of the ìhalf brother.î Khujand music and dancing, traditionally similar to Uzbek, were prevalent on Tajik radio and television and were a source of cultural frustration for Tajiks of other regions. Most officials spoke a Khujand dialect of Tajik which was grammatically and lexically affected by Uzbek. After perestroika, public speeches by Khujand officals in the republicís capital were continuously criticized and mocked in the opposition press. A journalist Safar Abdullo, for instance, claimed that
it is an open secret that there is a category of local party governmental officials who do not know their own language at all, and even when they do, their vocabulary is limited to a few expressions from their home lexicon. Oh, how many false Tajiks have I seen who read our literature in Russian translations! They consider them- selves cultured and hurl reproaches and false accusation at others.54
The former prime minister of Tajikistan, Djamshed Karimov, did not speak any Tajik, while the first secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan, Khakhar Makhkamov, was mocked by the press for the use of Uzbek words in his Tajik. During plenary sessions of the Supreme Soviet broadcast on Tajik television, the first secretary repeatedly used the Uzbek word kim (who) instead of the Tajik ki in his question, ìwho is for and who is against?î
For the most part, however, poets and writers opposed to the government did not openly identify the ìinner enemyî until the early 1990s. The poetry of the pre- and early perestroika periods was not anti-Khujand but rather pro-regional. Thus the Badakhshani poet Lidush refers to Badakhshan in this way:
I believe the time will come when my homeland turns into a flower garden
I believe the time will come when my Badakhsan becomes a garden of hope Ö 55
Similarly, Gulrukhsor Safieva wrote about a little village, Yakhch, where she had spent her childhood:
In the end you will fall in love With Yakhch and its mountains, With the streams of its waterfalls, With secrets of its springs.56
Poets who were elected as deputies to the parliament in Moscow such as Loik Sherali, Mumin Kanoat, and Gulrukhsor Safieva, or who worked in the republican parliament of Tajikistan, like Bozor Sobir, were opposed to the government. Their attempts to solve a variety of problems in their regions by means of reforms brought them into direct conflict with the Khujand majority and communist conservatives. The conflict led one of the most radical repre- sentatives of the opposition, Bozor Sobir, to give away his deputyís mandate, which prompted him to write a scandalous poem that exposed Khujand as the ìotherî:
I read ìmarsiaî57 for Samarqand and Bukhara, For ìkiblaî58 of Zoroaster and cradle of Sino, From khoji Kamoliddin and his city Khujand, Khujandism is left to us and the owners Ö
Though the light of [electricity] sparks from the summit of Nurek, The life of Tajik in this light did not become worthy.
Ever since, another light is gleaming from Ragun,
He is told: ìGet out of your hovel Ö !î59
Depicting the loss of Zoroastrian values as a consequence of the Arab conquest and of Islamization, as well as the losses of more recent times (Samarqand and Bukhara, debates about Avicennaís origin), the poet concludes with the theme of the ìinner enemy.î He writes that the legacy left for contemporary Tajiks by Kamoliddin Khujandióone of the famous poets born in Khujandóis ìKhujandism,î the ideology behind the rule of Khujandis in Tajikistan. In the second quatrain, Sobir elaborates upon this subject with concrete examples of the consequences of Khujand rule. The poet mentions the flooding of villages in Ragun, a seismically dangerous zone, to build a hydraulic station which was the cause of dispute between the Tajik government and its opposition.
In this paper I have analyzed three types of ìthe otherî that appear in Tajik literature in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Russia was seen as both a motherly figure and an evil step-mother. Russia had established Tajikistan as a state and nourished it socially and economically, but at the same time it had deformed its identity. Uzbekistan was portrayed as the evil step-father because of the demarcation during the 1920ís and the ìlossî of Samarqand and Bukhara. Khujand was seen as a half-brother because it monopolized political power in Tajikistan and imposed its half- Uzbek, half-Tajik culture upon other regions of Tajikistan. These images of ìthe otherî were constructed by Tajik poets and writers who borrowed images from stereotypes, popular beliefs, and myths about Russian, Uzbekistan, and Khujand. They used them to advance their own nationalist dream of an independent Tajikistan. Nationalist mobilization spurred by the literary elite would take on a dynamic of its own during the vicious civil war that broke out in 1992, civil war that resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of Tajiks, the departure of hundreds of thou- sands of Tajik, Uzbek and Russian speakers from the country, and the change of power in the capital of the new state.
Negative images of Russia and Khujand in the post-war Tajikistan lost their topicality and slowly disappeared from the Tajik literature. In the process of Tajik nation building, con- struction of the ìotherî image is mainly concentrated on Uzbekistan due to continuous political tensions between the two countries.
1 Stuart J. Kaufman, Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1989), p. 206.
2 Victor Zaslavsky, ìNationalism and Democratic Transition in Postcommunist Societies,î in Daedalus 121:2 (Spring 1992): 107.
3 See S. Lounev and G. Shirokov, ìCentral Asia as a New Region of World Politics,î in Central Asia: Conflict, Resolution, and Change (Maryland: The Eisenhower Institute, 1995), p. 304.
4 Sharif Shukurov and Rustam Shukurov, Centralnaya Aziya. Opit istorii dukha (Moskva: CSP Orengburskoi oblasti, 2001), p. 114.
5 Ibid., p. 114.
6 See Gesu Jahangiri, ìThe premises for the construction of a Tajik National Identity, 1920ñ1930î in Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence, ed. Mohammad Reza Djalili, Frederic Grare, and Shirin Akiner (Great Britain: St Martinís Press, 1998), pp. 14ñ41.
7 M. Mukhiddinov, ìMardumi shahr va atrofi Bukhoro Tojikand yo Uzbekand?î in Rohbari Donish 8-9 (August-September 1928): 2.
8 See, for instance, Iosif Braginskiy, ìTadjikskaya literature,î in Literaturi Srendeni Azii (Moskva: Nauka, 1960), pp. 21ñ85.
9 See http://cccp.narod.ru/gerb.html.
10 Such as Kutbi Kiromís ìSiberian Man,î ìTo Russian Poet Victor Bokov,î ìTo Sergey Eseninî; and Mumin Kanoatís ìThe Waves of Dnepr,î ìThe Song of Stalingrad,î translated by Maksim Rilskiy.
11 Such as Bozor Sobirís ìTo Stanislav Kunyaev; ì Gulrukhsor Safievaís ìEaster Poem, ì ìEpistle to Svetlana Aleksievichî; and Timur Zulfikarovís ìAndrey Rublev,î ìMamai,î ìChurches Swans,î ìChrismasî; and ìDmitriy Donskoyís Prayer on the Kulikov Field.î
12 Loik Sherali, Varaki Sang (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1980), p. 66.
13 In April 1928, the Decree on Romanization was adopted and published; it worked until 1940, when Cyrillic letters replaced the Latin alphabet. See, for instance, Gesu Jahangiri, ìThe premises for the construction of a Tajik National Identity,î pp.14ñ41 and M. Bazarov, ìSovetskaya religioznaya politika v Sredney Azii 1918-1930gg.,î in Etnicheskie i regionalnie konflikti v Evrazii (Moskva: Ves Mir, 1997), pp. 46ñ72.
14 Sharif Shukurov and Rustam Shukurov, Centralnaya Aziya: Opit istorii dukha (Moskva: CSP Orengburskoi oblasti, 2001), pp. 125ñ129.
15 The percentage of Tajiks living in Afghanistan significantly increased after the establishment of Soviet ruling in Tajikistan during the 1920s and in the winter of 1992 after the outbreak of civil war.
16 Interview with Gulrukhsor Safieva dated October 24, 1999.
17 An Afghan singer famous in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, who died in a car accident in 1979. 18 Vatan means ìhomelandî in Tajik and Dari.
19 Farzona, Shabokhuni Bark (Dushanbe: Adib, 1989), p. 16.
20Ibid., p. 17.
21 Bozor Sobir, Charogi Ruz 5 (February 1992): 3.
22 Tamir Yael, ìThe Enigma of Nationalism,î in World Politics XLVII (April 1995), p. 437, as quoted by Ronald Grigor Suny, ìWhy We Hate You: The Passions of National Identity and Ethnic Violence,î (Berkeley Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies Working Paper Series, Spring 2004), p. 10.
23 Stuart J. Kaufman, Modern Hatreds, p. 25.
24 Divan is Persian for ìcollection of poems.î
25 Bozor Sobir, Oftobnihol (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1982), p. 15.
26 In the post-Soviet era, Ismail Somoni became the symbol of Tajik historical glory.
27 A famous miniaturist from Hitar (15thñ16th century).
28 Architectural monument in Samarqand.
29 Bozor Sobir, Mijgoni Shab (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1981), p. 34.
30 Y. S. Ashurov et al, Bukhara (Moskva: Nauka, 1968), p. 17.
31 The same motif can be found in another short story by Bahmanyor, ìThe Price of Life.î See Bahmanyor, Pesn idushego v petlu (Dushanbe: Adib, 1991), p. 12.
32 Ibid., pp. 5ñ11.
33 Legendary hero of Firodusiís Shahname.
34 Both Abdulkandi and Kuhistani are historical figures who lived during Timurís ruling.
35 Bahmanyor, Pesn, p. 8.
36 Ibid., p. 11.
37 Ibid., p. 5.
38 Ahmadi Donish, a Tajik pro-Russian enlightening thinker of the 19th century.
39 Loik Sherali, Faryodi befaryodras (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1997), p. 21.
40 Bozor Sobir, Mijgoni Shab (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1981), p. 33.
41 Ibid., pp. 24ñ25.
42 Loik Sherali, Varaki Sang (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1980), p. 99.
43 Obrashenie OKO ìSamarqandî k Prezidiumu II sezda narodnikh deputatov SSSR (12.1989).
44 Edward W. Walker, Dissolution: Sovereignty and the Break up of the Soviet Union (Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Public Policy Press, 2003), p. 67.
45 Ibid., p. 67.
46 During the post- Soviet period, in response to accusations of political and economic corruption, the cultural elite of Khujand were constantly discussing the idea of annexation to Uzbekistan.
47 M. Olimov, Mejtadjikskiy konflikt: put k mir (Moskva: Rossiyskaya akademiya Nauk, Institut etnologii I antropologii im. Miklukhi Maklaya, 1998), p. 36. Also see A Niezi, ìTajikistan: regionalnie aspekti
konflikta (1990-ie godi),î in Centralnaya Azia I Kavkaz. (Shveciya: Centr socialnikh i politicheskikh issledovaniy, 1997), p. 62.
48 The word oshkoro is a literal translation of perestroikaís glasnost slogan.
49 ìBokhtarî Bactria corresponds to the pre-Islamic state, whose territory included lands of the present
Khatlon region.
50 U. G. Kulchik and others, ìProgram of ëBokhtar,î in Grajdanskie dvijeniya v Tadjikistane (Moskva: CIMO, 1990), pp. 62ñ66.
51 Ibid., p. 64.
52 See, for example, M. Shukurov, ìDurustiho asosi oshnoist,î in Sadoi Shark, no. 2, (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1990), p. 109.
53 Rahim Masov, Istoriya topornogo razdeleniya (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1991).
54 N. Abdullo, ìNiholi dushmani barkan,î in Sadoi Shark, no. 2 (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1990), p. 90. 55 Habib Lidush, Daryota tizd (Khorug: Khorug, 1991), p. 33.
56 Gurlrukhsor, Ruhi Bokhtar (Dushanbe: Irfon, 1987), p. 79.
57 Traditional poetry, read at funerals.
58 In this context, kibla refers to the Zoroastrian sacred ìfire.î
59 Bozor Sobir, Chashmi Safedor (Dushanbe: Adolat, 1991), pp. 9ñ10.