The Pentagon papers

 

News Desk
The Untold Story of the Pentagon Papers Co-Conspirators
Speaking publicly for the first time, a historian reveals the crucial role that he and a small band of others played in helping Daniel Ellsberg leak the documents to journalists.
By Eric Lichtblau9:34 A.M.

In 1971, Gar Alperovitz played a vital, clandestine role in making the Pentagon Papers public.Photograph by Sharon Alperovitz
In June of 1971, Gar Alperovitz, a thirty-five-year-old historian, sped through suburban Boston, looking for an out-of-the-way pay phone to use to call a reporter. Alperovitz had never considered himself much of a risk-taker. The father of two ran a small economic think tank focussed on community-building. He had participated in demonstrations against the Vietnam War and rung doorbells with Martin Luther King, Jr., in Boston, as part of an antiwar campaign. But what he was doing on this day, propelled by his desire to end the conflict, could lead to federal prison.
He pulled his old Saab up to a phone booth on the outskirts of Harvard Square, and rang a hotel room nearby. When the reporter picked up, Alperovitz identified himself with the alias he had adopted: “It’s Mr. Boston.” Alperovitz told the journalist to open the door. Waiting in the hallway was a cardboard box, left minutes before by a runner working with Alperovitz. Inside were several hundred pages of the most sought-after documents in the United States—the top-secret Vietnam history known as the Pentagon Papers.
The handoff was one of about a dozen clandestine encounters with journalists that Alperovitz orchestrated over the course of a three-week period, when he and a small group of fellow antiwar activists helped Daniel Ellsberg, a former military analyst at the rand Corporation, elude an F.B.I. manhunt and distribute the Pentagon Papers to nineteen newspapers. Ellsberg, who had smuggled the documents out of rand’s Santa Monica office two years earlier and copied them with the help of a colleague, has long been the public face of the leak. But Ellsberg was aided by about a half-dozen volunteers whose identities have stayed secret for forty-six years, despite the intense interest of the Nixon Administration, thousands of articles, books, documentaries, plays, and now a major film, “The Post,” starring Meryl Streep and Tom Hanks, about the Pentagon Papers. Ellsberg told me that the hidden role of this group was so critical to the operation that he gave them a code name—The Lavender Hill Mob, the name of a 1951 film about a ragtag group of amateur bank robbers. He has referred obliquely to his co-conspirators over the years. But he held back from identifying them because some in the group still feared repercussions.
Now, Alperovitz, who is eighty-one, has agreed to be revealed for the first time. “I’m getting old,” Alperovitz told me, with a laugh. Several other members of the group told me that they still wished to remain anonymous, or declined interview requests. One former Harvard graduate student who also played a major role—she hid the papers in her apartment and organized hideouts for Ellsberg—considered coming forward in this piece, but she ultimately decided not to, after conferring with lawyers. As a green-card holder, she worried that her involvement could lead to her deportation by the Trump Administration. Still, she remains proud of her role. “Those were extraordinary days,” she told me. “It was about questioning the government and being against the government. I was very, very angry about what was happening in Vietnam.”

Alperovitz said that the renewed interest in the Pentagon Papers, brought on by “The Post,” pushed him to finally acknowledge his role, but he also alluded to the “very dangerous” climate under President Trump. A historian and political economist, whose writings have focussed on the dangers of nuclear war and economic inequality, Alperovitz said that Trump’s “outrageous and destabilizing” rhetoric on North Korea compelled him to tell his story and “to suggest to people that it’s time to take action.”
“We were trying to stop the war,” Alperovitz told me, in an interview in his home near Washington. “I’m not heroic in this, but I just felt it important to act,” he said. “There were lots of people dying unnecessarily. There were lots of people who were taking risks to try to end the war, and I was one of them.”
Ellsberg told me that Alperovitz, in particular, was “critical to the way this thing worked out,” organizing the broader distribution of the papers. Ellsberg had initially turned over the documents only to Neil Sheehan, a reporter at the Times, which published the first front-page article on the Pentagon Papers, on June 13, 1971. (The Nixon Administration quickly secured an injunction to halt the Times from continuing to publish the documents.) But it was Alperovitz who devised the strategy of distributing the papers to as many news organizations as possible, including the Washington Post, an approach that later proved to be crucial from both a legal and public-relations standpoint. And it was Alperovitz who came up with the elaborate techniques for slipping the documents to reporters while evading the authorities. “Gar took care of all the cloak-and-dagger stuff,” Ellsberg said.

The danger to the Lavender Hill Mob could hardly be underestimated. Alperovitz “would’ve been indicted in a heartbeat” if he had been identified, Ellsberg said. Senior officials in the Nixon White House had become obsessed with arresting and discrediting Ellsberg and any of his accomplices. They created a group of Nixon campaign operatives, who became known as “the plumbers,” to break into the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist, in what would be a precursor to the Watergate scandal. In a 2010 documentary “The Most Dangerous Man in America: Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers,” Egil Krogh, one of the operatives, says that the Administration was obsessed with identifying who else was involved in the leak. “Did Daniel Ellsberg work alone? Was he working with some other people? Was he part of a conspiracy?” Krogh, who was imprisoned for his role in the Watergate break-in, says in the film. F.B.I. agents—and Nixon’s plumbers—tracked leads from Los Angeles to Paris. The perpetrators, it turned out, met less than a mile from Harvard Square, the epicenter of the liberal, Ivy League élitism that Nixon so detested.

Shortly after surrendering to federal authorities, in June, 1971, for his role in leaking the Pentagon Papers, Daniel Ellsberg spoke to reporters.Photograph by Bettmann / Getty

In early June of 1971, Ellsberg, who had left rand and was working as a senior research fellow at M.I.T., hosted a small dinner party at his home in Cambridge. Ellsberg, who was then forty, had never met Alperovitz but invited him after a colleague said that they shared an intense opposition to the war. The Harvard graduate student was there as well.
Alperovitz had worked in the U.S. government on foreign affairs from 1961 to 1966—first in Congress, then at the State Department—and it was there, as an insider, that his opposition to the war hardened. As a Senate aide, in 1964, Alperovitz worked unsuccessfully to stop what he still calls the “phony” Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which allowed President Lyndon B. Johnson to escalate America’s military involvement in Vietnam. More than anything, the congressional vote confirmed his view that the war was a fraud perpetrated on the American public.
At the dinner, Alperovitz and Ellsberg, a former Marine and Pentagon analyst, talked about Nixon, liberal activism, nuclear weapons, and, of course, Vietnam. The top-secret papers never came up. But, as the party wrapped up and Alperovitz walked to his car, the Harvard graduate student pulled him aside and made a cryptic comment about some sensitive material on Vietnam and “boxes and boxes of papers,” Alperovitz recalled.
A day or two later, the graduate student arranged to meet Alperovitz at a park, she told me in an interview. She explained to Alperovitz that Ellsberg had entrusted her with thousands of pages of the documents, and that she had stashed them in cupboards in the pantry of her small apartment. Ellsberg had given copies of the papers to a Times reporter several months earlier, but had not heard from him since. She and Ellsberg didn’t know when the newspaper might run the story, or if it even intended to do so, and were eager to distribute more of the papers to other news outlets. “I needed help to do this work,” the woman told me, and Alperovitz seemed like “exactly the right person.”
When she asked Alperovitz if he would help, he immediately agreed. Decades later, Alperovitz said that his eagerness, despite the obvious risks, still puzzles him. “I’m a very cautious person, but I didn’t blink—which I don’t understand,” he told me. “I’m surprised I didn’t just say, ‘Whoops, I’m busy tomorrow.’ It was out of character.”
In a subsequent meeting with Ellsberg, Alperovitz mapped out a strategy. Ellsberg, who had tried to leak the secret papers to members of Congress but had been rebuffed, wanted to get all seven thousand pages of the papers out at once, if not in the Times then in the Washington Post or somewhere else. “My nightmare was that the F.B.I. would catch me and capture all the papers first,” Ellsberg recalled. He even considered using the Harvard Crimson’s presses to print the documents himself. Alperovitz talked him out of it. “I said to Dan, ‘Look, this is seven thousand pages of material, you’ll get one story, maybe two,’ ” Alperovitz said. “If you really want to get this out to the public, you’ve got to break it up and keep the story going.”

To Ellsberg’s surprise, the Times ran its first story on the papers several days later. The Nixon Administration quickly secured an injunction to halt publication. By then, Alperovitz was already working the pay phones around Cambridge and Somerville to contact a reporter from the Post and get more coverage. Days later, with Alperovitz acting as an intermediary, Ellsberg met with a Post reporter in a local motel room and gave him the entire secret report. After the reporter left, Ellsberg and his wife, who were hiding out in the motel, saw on television that F.B.I. agents had descended on their home to question him. For the next two weeks, the Ellsbergs remained holed up, with the Harvard graduate student taking the lead in finding new places to stash them. “I moved them every few days,” she recalled. “I’d call friends and say, ‘I need your apartment for two days, and I just want you to go somewhere else. Just don’t ask me any questions.’ ” Each time the couple moved, she crammed boxes of the secret history into her small Volkswagen and moved them along with the Ellsbergs.
The one time that Ellsberg knew whose apartment he was using, he said, was during weekend that he spent in Cambridge with a friend, Jeffrey Race, a fellow Vietnam veteran. Race recalled watching a television news report with his fiancée about the F.B.I. searching for Ellsberg. “They can’t find him,” Race told me, “and we joked that, ‘Hey, he’s lying right here in his underwear on the floor taking a nap in front of the TV.’ ”
It was at Race’s apartment that Ellsberg had his closest brush with arrest. At Ellsberg’s request, from a pay phone outside of Race’s apartment, Alperovitz called a friend of Ellsberg’s in Los Angeles to arrange a way for him to speak with his children and let them know that he was all right. As Ellsberg watched from the window, Alperovitz hung up and walked away. Minutes later, police cars converged around the phone booth. Ellsberg guessed that the F.B.I. must have been tapping his Los Angeles friend’s phone, or perhaps the pay phone, in their effort to find him. “We ducked behind the window,” Ellsberg recalled. “I’m thinking, Oh my God!” He and his wife left that same night for a different hiding place.
Alperovitz asked the administrator of the Cambridge Institute, the think tank he ran, to vacate her apartment for the Ellsbergs for several days. “It was a very matter-of-fact thing,” the administrator, Nancy Lyons, who is now retired and living in Concord, Massachusetts, said in an interview. She immediately agreed—she saw it as an opportunity to be involved in something larger than herself. “I might have just been naïve, but I didn’t have any hesitation.” The one concern she had, she told me, was that she had waited a long time to get the rent-controlled apartment, and she didn’t want to lose it if someone found out. (No one did.)
Alperovitz’s primary task was devising how to distribute the papers to as many news organizations as possible. Ellsberg usually told Alperovitz which newspapers to contact—the Boston Globe, the St. Louis Post Dispatch, the Los Angeles Times, the Christian Science Monitor, and the Detroit Free Press, among them—but he left it to Alperovitz to figure out the logistics.
Alperovitz told me that he improvised the elaborate handoffs. “I invented this stuff as I went along,” he said. “I don’t know how.” Getting journalists interested in the papers, then the most sought after documents in the United States, was easy. He would call a newspaper’s city desk from a pay phone, identify himself as Mr. Boston­—a code name that got a few references in “The Post”—and then offer to share some of the papers. “They were very happy to take them. Everyone wanted to be in on it,” he said.
The trickier part was handing off hundreds of pages of documents without being detected. Alperovitz and the Harvard graduate student recruited a handful of college students—all ardently opposed to the war—to help not only with mundane tasks, like getting the Ellsbergs’ groceries, but also to act as runners who delivered the papers.

During the frantic three weeks it took to distribute the documents, Alperovitz typically didn’t have time to even read all the papers before parcelling them out to reporters. He simply grabbed a few hundred pages, boxed them up, and sent the runners on their way. Alperovitz usually found out what was in each stack only when he read the news stories. The pace was so hectic that he and other participants have trouble remembering the exact sequence today. Alperovitz can’t remember, for instance, which reporter he called at the Cambridge hotel with instructions for finding the papers in the hallway. The former Harvard graduate student recalls a nighttime handoff of papers at an acquaintance’s home, but the details are hazy.
There were also furtive meetings at Boston’s Logan Airport, chosen by Alperovitz because it was a convenient place for out-of-town reporters to blend in. One student helping with the operation was dispatched to Logan to meet a Newsday reporter whom Alperovitz had summoned from Washington. Posing this time as Sam Adams, Alperovitz had the airport page the reporter over the public-address system; the student then handed the reporter a note with directions to find a green plastic shopping bag on a seat in the terminal. Inside

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Sugar. 2017

UKRAINE: Largest sugar producer buys ag insurance company: Astarta-Kyiv, Ukraine’s largest agricultural holding, has purchased the Ukrainian agrarian insurance company worth UAH10.5 million (US$394,181), the National Association of Sugar Producers of Ukraine reports, according to Interfax-Ukraine. The holding said in its financial statements over January-September 2017 posted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange: “The acquisition of 100% of the shares of the insurer has been completed this year”. The Ukrainian Agro-Insurance has been operating on the market since 1995. This is one of the four insurance companies in Ukraine that acted as the founders of the Agrarian Insurance Pool. The insurance company completed 2016 with a net profit amounting to UAH10.2 million, while in 2015 – its net loss reached UAH33.4 million. The company’s assets over the year increased by 24% to UAH58 million, equity capital grew by 25% to UAH 51 million. The company’s authorized capital totals UAH12 million. Astarta-Kyiv is one of Ukraine’s largest vertically integrated agricultural holding specializing in sugar and agricultural production. Its production share totals about 25%, the land bank is 245,000 hectares. The company also produces milk and processing soybeans. The company operates in Poltava, Vinnytsia, Khmelnytsky, Ternopil, Zhytomyr, Chernihiv, Cherkasy and Kharkiv regions.

BRAZIL: RenovaBio should prompt new wave of M&A in sugarcane sector: Brazil’s sugarcane industry is expected to go through an intense wave of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) once RenovaBio, a governmental program to encourage use of biofuels in the country, is launched, says Alexandre Figliolino, partner at MB Agro consultancy firm, according to Brazil’s Infomoney news website. “If RenovaBio comes through, I have no doubt that we will have a consolidation movement in the sugar and ethanol sector as we have never seen before,” said Figliolino, during this week’s XP Datagro’s Agrifinance Brazil conference. RenovaBio aims to expand biofuel production in Brazil by adopting predictable rules for development of the sector, in line with economic, social and environmental sustainability. The program also aims to contribute to Brazil’s goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. According to Figliolino, the sugarcane industry is experiencing five years of stagnation, and has a “huge disparity” in terms of operational efficiency of mills, opening up a scenario in which the most efficient tend to acquire others. Currently, there is a process of “silent consolidation” in the sector, according to Figliolino, in which small acquisitions are occurring with mills taking over cane fields of neighboring producers. Guilherme Nastari, director at Datagro consultancy firm, says RenovaBio’s approval may be the trigger for the next big wave of production in the industry. Felipe Vicchiato, financial director of São Martinho mill, said RenovaBio’s launch may also encourage more companies in the industry to seek initial public offerings (IPO).

BRAZIL: INTL FCStone sees centre-south cane crush at 587.5 million tonnes: Consultancy firm INTL FCStone estimates that mills in Brazil’s centre-south will crush 587.5 million tonnes of sugarcane in the 2018/19 harvest, up 0.6% from the the 2016/17 season forecast (583.8 million tonnes), according to Brazil’s Estadão Conteúdo. An improvement in weather conditions and a higher rate of sugarcane field renewal in 2015 and 2016 should contribute to the slight increase in cane crush next season. The 2018/19 harvest officially begins in April 2018. “As for the harvested area, as opposed to the 1.5% decline projected for 2017/18, we expect it to advance 0.3% in the next harvest. This slight increase comes as a result of less reserved areas for sugarcane reforestation,” said analyst João Paulo Botelho. About 8.03 million hectares of sugarcane are expected to be harvested in the region in 2018/19. “It should be noted that greater humidity resulting from a less dry climate tends to reduce the average ATR (Total Recoverable Sugar) of the crops,” he said. INTL FCStone expects ATR at 135.4 kg/tonne, down 0.5% from the projection for the current season. The consultancy firm also estimates that 56% of the sugarcane will be destined to ethanol production in 2018/19, up from 53.4% this year. This should contribute to an increase of 5.1% in ethanol production, to 26.3 billion litres. Hydrous ethanol output should total 15.4 billion litres in 2018/19, up 8.9% from the current year, while anhydrous ethanol production would remain stable. The group’s estimate for sugar production is at 33.3 million tonnes, down 5.5% from 2017/18.

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Best attractive places in Eastern Europe

20 of the Most Exotic Places In Eastern Europe!
Western Europe is a region of the world that’s hugely popular with travelers, but not nearly as many people choose to travel to Eastern Europe. Sadly for them, they’re missing out. From natural wonders to architectural treasures and cultures that are as diverse as you can imagine, here are 20 exotic destinations for you to visit when traveling in Eastern Europe:

20. Budapest, Hungary

exotic-eastern-europe
Budapest is widely known for being one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, if not the world. The Hungarian capital boasts geothermal springs, botanical gardens, parks, and numerous architectural gems such as its iconic parliament building.
19. Uvac Valley, Serbia

exotic-eastern-europe
The Uvac River flows from southwestern Serbia into eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. It features remarkable meanders that can be viewed from the surrounding hills. Wildlife also abounds in the region, so it’s popular with nature lovers.
18. Kotor, Montenegro

exotic-eastern-europe
This beautiful little town of just 13,500 people is situated on the Montenegrin coast. Kotor is straddled by enormous limestone cliffs, and its old port is surrounded by Venetian fortifications that were built during the 18th Century.
17. Bratislava, Slovakia

exotic-eastern-europe
Home to many renowned universities, museums, theaters, and art galleries, Bratislava is the political, cultural, and economic capital of Slovakia. Its skyline is dominated by Bratislava Castle, which overlooks the River Danube.
16. Sofia, Bulgaria

exotic-eastern-europe
Due to its location in the center of the Balkan Peninsula, the Bulgarian capital is within each reach of the Aegean, Black, and Adriatic Seas. Sofia is full of interesting architecture, coupled with beautiful green areas.
15. Moravian Karst, Czech Republic

exotic-eastern-europe
The Moravian Karst is one of the Czech Republic’s foremost natural landmarks. Located near the town of Blansko, this protected nature reserve includes over 1,100 caverns and gorges for you to explore.
14. Minsk, Belarus

exotic-eastern-europe
The Belarussian capital is home to over 2 million people, making it by far the country’s largest city. Despite its many attractions and rich history, Minsk doesn’t attract the amount of international visitors that other European capitals tend to. Nevertheless, it’s a beautiful place that’s definitely worth seeing.
13. Brac Island, Croatia

exotic-eastern-europe
The Dalmatian Isles off the coast of Croatia in the Adriatic Sea are known around the world for their beauty. Brac Island is one of the largest in the archipelago, and is home to one of the best beaches in Europe – the Zlatni Rat.
12. Hill of Crosses, Lithuania

exotic-eastern-europe
The Hill of Crosses is a site of religious pilgrimage for Roman Catholics. Over the years, pilgrims have placed many crucifixes, statues of the Virgin Mary, and rosaries on the site. Although its exact origins are unknown, there are believed to be over a 250,000 crosses on the hill.
11. Saint Petersburg, Russia

exotic-eastern-europe
St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia between 1713 and 1728, and 1732 until 1918. There are no less than 36 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the city, together with 4,000 outstanding individual monuments. Cultural establishments number in the hundreds.
10. Crooked Forest, Poland

exotic-eastern-europe
This forest is part man-made, consisting of hundreds of pine trees that were planted circa 1930. There’s nothing unusual in that, but the way the trees are shaped is highly unusual. They are thought to have been bent into a curved shape using an unknown technique.
9. Skopje, Macedonia

exotic-eastern-europe
An eclectic blend of Christian and Islamic culture, the territory where the Macedonian capital lies has been inhabited since at least 4,000 BC. Throughout its long history, it was destroyed many times, however it’s still replete with historical landmarks that attract people from all over the world.
8. Tatev Monastery, Armenia

exotic-eastern-europe
Sitting high atop a basalt plateau near the village of Tatev, this monastery was constructed in the 9th Century. Some 200 years after its construction, more than 1,000 monks and artisans called the Tatev Monastery home.
7. Ljubljana, Slovenia

exotic-eastern-europe
The culturally-rich capital of Slovenia has been inhabited since Roman times, but its downtown area can trace its architectural roots back to the Middle Ages. Its outskirts have given rise to numerous modern buildings, further diversifying its unique mix of architectural styles.
6. Chisinau, Moldova

exotic-eastern-europe
Formerly known as Kishinev, Chisinau is the capital city of Moldova. Located in the center of the country, the city is a hub for industry, culture, politics, and commerce, not to mention 23 universities, various museums, theaters, and a wide range of cultural events.
5. Maly Semyachik, Russia

exotic-eastern-europe
On the Kamchatka Peninsula lies a sparkling blue lake that sits in the crater of a dormant stratovolcano, which last erupted in 1952. Its color contrasts beautifully with the rugged surrounding landscape, but you wouldn’t want to swim in it, because it’s highly acidic.
4. Brasov, Romania

exotic-eastern-europe
Located in central Romania, this city is a great starting point for exploring the country and beyond – it’s within reach of Black Sea resorts, Modovan monasteries and other tourist attractions. It’s also a popular ski resort due to its proximity to the Southern Carpathian Mountains.
3. Triglav National Park, Slovenia

exotic-eastern-europe
Slovenia’s only national park was established in 1981, and is home to some truly spectacular scenery, from imposing mountains, to tranquil lakes, and plenty of wildlife. If you happen to enjoy a good walk or hike, the park has many hiking trails.
2. Gergeti Trinity Church, Georgia

exotic-eastern-europe
Perched on top of a mountain in the Caucasus mountain range, this church was built in the 14th Century. It sits in an isolated and unspoiled area of Georgia that overlooks the Chkheri River, and is a popular resting spot for trekkers. You’d better be fit if you want to see it – it’s a three-hour climb to get there.
1. Belgrade, Serbia

exotic-eastern-europe
The name Belgrade translates into English as “White City”. The Serbian capital is home to over 1.3 million people, with architectural treasures galore to be discovered. What’s more, the city is steadily building a reputation around the world for its vibrant, riverfront nightlife.

__._,_.___

Surah Al Baqarah

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English Translation of Al-Quran

[02] Surah Al-Baqarah [The Cow]

Ayat 228. And divorced women shall wait (as regards their marriage) for three menstrual periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses, etc.) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect, etc.) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

Tafseer of Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 228. Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah Hath created in their wombs, if they have faith in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) over them. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. Islam tries to maintain the married state as far as possible, especially where children are concerned, but it is against the restriction of the liberty of men and women in such vitally important matters as love and family life. It will check hasty action as far as possible, and leave the door to reconciliation open at many stages. Even after divorce a suggestion of reconciliation is made, subject to certain precautions (mentioned in the following verses) against thoughtless action. A period of waiting (‘iddah) for three monthly courses is prescribed, in order to see if the marriage conditionally dissolved is likely to result in issue. But this is not necessary where the divorced woman is a virgin: 33:49. It is definitely declared that men and women shall have similar rights against each other. The difference in economic position between the sexes makes the man’s rights and liabilities a little greater than the woman’s. Q. 4:34 refers to the duty of the man to maintain the woman, and to a certain difference in nature between the sexes. Subject to this, the sexes are on terms of equality in law, and in certain matters the weaker sex is entitled to special protection.

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English Translation of Hadith

Hazrat Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah image001.jpg [SAWW](PBUH) said, “A matron should not be given in marriage except after consulting her; and a virgin should not be given in marriage except after her permission.” The people asked, “Messenger of Allah cid:image004.gif@01D3D74F.53EF0D40 (SAWW)(PBUH) ! How can we know her permission?” Messenger of Allah cid:image004.gif@01D3D74F.53EF0D40 (SAWW)(PBUH) replied and said, “Her silence (indicates her permission).”

[Al-Bukhari].

Lesson: as mentioned above in Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 228. And divorced women shall wait (as regards their marriage) for three menstrual periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created” This Hadith is truly explain teaching of Islam that it’s the right of women not be forced into marriage against their will and without her consultation and liking, further example of Some rights of women in Islamic Law are, women are spiritually equal to men, and both genders are obligated to uphold the Five Pillars, or acts of worship, women have the right to legal personhood, meaning that they can represent themselves in a court of law, in a contract or financial agreement, without a co-signer or legal guardian when they reach adulthood, women have the right to own property, and the right to buy, sell, loan or otherwise dispose of it as they wish, women have the right to speak and participate in public life, and to be equal partners in calling for social justice, women have the right to an education within the means of their family and society. This may be seen as a personal obligation upon a girl’s guardians, or upon her husband, or as a collective responsibility to provide for the education of girls on Muslim society as a whole, husbands have no claims on their wife’s property, and the dowry belongs to the woman to spend as she wishes, women have the right to inherit from male and female relations; in some circumstances, the female’s share of inheritance is half that of the male, because in contrast to men, women have no obligation to support male or female relatives under any conditions, women have the right to initiate divorce, and have the right to protection and support from their husbands and male relatives in case of divorce.

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First state dinner 2018

45
CONGRESS
SECURITY
THE NINE
TRUMPMERICA
2018
The complete guest list for President Donald Trump’s first state dinner
By CNN Staff
Updated 0107 GMT (0907 HKT) April 25, 2018

(CNN)President Donald Trump and first lady Melania Trump are hosting the administration’s first state dinner with French President Emmanuel Macron and his wife, Brigitte.

Apple CEO Tim Cook and media mogul Rupert Murdoch are among the guest attending Tuesday night’s dinner at the White House, along with former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and House Speaker Paul Ryan.
Here’s the complete list of expected attendees provided by the White House, specifically the Office of the First Lady:
The Honorable Jerome Adams, Surgeon General, and Mrs. Lacey Adams
His Excellency Gérard Araud, Ambassador of France to the United States of America and Mr. Pascal Blondeau
Mr. Bernard Arnault and Mrs. Hélène Arnault
Her Excellency Nicole Belloubet, Keeper of the Seals and Minister of Justice
Mr. Philippe Besson
His Excellency Jean-Michel Blanquer, Minister of National Education
The Honorable John Bolton and Mrs. Gretchen Bolton
Mr. Thierry Breton
His Excellency Christian Cambon, Senator for Val-de-Marne, President of the Foreign Affairs Committee at the Senate
Ms. Laurence des Cars
The Honorable William Cassidy, United States Senator from Louisiana, and Dr. Laura Cassidy
Mr. Timothy Cook and The Honorable Lisa Jackson
Mr. Pierre-Olivier Costa
Ms. Sarah Coulson and Dr. Douglas Bradburn
Mr. Christian Dargnat
His Excellency Jean-Yves Le Drian, Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs
Ms. Meghan Duggan
The Honorable John Bel Edwards, Governor of Louisiana and Mrs. Donna Edwards
Ms. Laurence Engel
His Excellency Philippe Étienne, Diplomatic Advisor, G7 and G20 Sherpa of the President of the Republic
Ms. Barbara Frugier, International Communication Advisor to the Presidency of the Republic
The Honorable Joseph Hagin
Mr. David Hamilton and Mrs. Catharine Hamilton
Mrs. Marillyn Hewson and Mr. James Hewson
The Honorable Fiona Hill and Mr. Kenneth Keen
The Honorable Stuart Holliday, former Ambassador for the United States, and Mrs. Gwen Holliday
The Honorable John F. Kelly and Mrs. Karen Kelly
The Honorable John Kennedy, United States Senator from Louisiana, and Mrs. Rebecca Kennedy
The Honorable Henry Kissinger and Mrs. Nancy Kissinger
Mr. Henry Kravis and Mrs. Marie-Josée Kravis
The Honorable Lawrence Kudlow and Mrs. Judith Kudlow
The Honorable Jared Kushner and The Honorable Ivanka Trump
Ms. Christine Lagarde
The Honorable Ronald Lauder, former Ambassador for the United States, and Mrs. Jo Carole Lauder
His Excellency Aurélien Lechevallier, Deputy Diplomatic Advisor, G7 and G20 Sherpa of the President of the Republic
The Honorable Paul LePage, Governor of Maine and Ms. Lauren LePage
The Honorable Christopher Liddell and Mrs. Renee Liddell
His Excellency Bruno Le Maire, Minister of the Economy and Finance
The Honorable James Mattis, Secretary of Defense
The Honorable Kevin McCarthy and Mrs. Judy McCarthy
The Honorable Jamie McCourt, American Ambassador
Mrs. Ronna McDaniel and Mr. Patrick McDaniel
The Honorable Stephen Miller
Mr. Emmanuel Miquel
The Honorable Aaron Wess Mitchell and Mrs. Elizabeth Mitchell
The Honorable Steven T. Mnuchin, Secretary of the Treasury and Ms. Louise Linton
Dr. Mary Morton and Mr. Keith Forman
Mr. Rupert Murdoch and Mrs. Jerry Murdoch
The Honorable Kirstjen Nielsen, Secretary of Homeland Security and Mr. Chad Wolf
Her Excellency Florence Parly, Minister for the Armed Forces
The Vice President of the United States and Mrs. Karen Pence
Mr. Emanuel Perrotin
Mr. Thomas Pesquet
The Most Revered Christophe Pierre, Titular Archbishop of Guneia, the Apostolic Nuncio to the United States
Mr. Hervé Pierre Braillard
The Honorable Michael Pompeo and Mrs. Susan Pompeo
The Honorable Dina Powell and The Honorable David McCormick
General Benoît Puga
The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Mrs. Jane Roberts
Admiral Bernard Rogel
The Honorable John F. W. Rogers and Ms. Deborah Lehr
Mrs. Virginia Rometty and Mr. Anthony Mark Rometty
The Honorable, Wilbur L. Ross, Junior, The Secretary of Commerce and Mrs. Hilary Ross
The Honorable Edward Royce, United States Representative from California and Mrs. Maria Royce
Mr. David Rubenstein and Ms. Gabrielle Rubenstein
The Honorable, Paul Ryan, the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and Mrs. Janna Ryan
The Honorable Sarah Sanders and Mr. Bryan Sanders
Her Excellency Marielle de Sarnez, National Assembly Member for Paris, President of the National Assembly Foreign Affairs Committee
Mr. Guy Savoy
Mr. Stephen Schwarzman and Mrs. Christine Schwarzman
The Honorable Thomas Shannon, Jr.
Mr. John Shuster
Ms. Annette Simmons and Mr. Gerald Fronterhouse
Mr. Frederick Smith and Mrs. Diane Smith
The Honorable, John J. Sullivan, Deputy Secretary of State and Ms. Graciela Rodriguez
Mrs. Julie Sweet and Mr. Chad Sweet
Mr. Hugo Verges
Dr. Benedict Wolf and Mrs. Ursula Wolf

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Finally A Tiny, Portable Projector That Turns Your Living Room Into A Full-blown Home Theatre
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Takis Tridimas

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Prof. Takis Tridimas
“A leading writer on EU law, as well as a busy barrister practising in this area.”
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Prof. Takis Tridimas
takistridimas@matrixlaw.co.uk
Contact:
takistridimas@matrixlaw.co.uk
Practice Team:
practiceteamx@matrixlaw.co.uk
Professor Takis Tridimas is a leading author in European Union law and his work as barrister covers the whole spectrum of EU law and the European Convention of Human Rights. He specialises in public law and judicial review, competition law, company law, banking and financial services, commercial law, and conflict of laws. Since 2008, he has been advising both the banking sector and state organizations on matters relating to the financial and the Eurozone crisis.

He has handled cases before the Supreme Court of the UK, the European Court of Justice, the EU General Court, and the European Court of Human Rights. He has been involved, among others, in cases on economic sanctions, competition law, mergers, asylum, mutual recognition of professional qualifications, customs law, extradition of tax offenders, free movement of goods, persons and services, EU constitutional law, employment law, and EU external relations. He has acted for individuals and corporations as well as for HM Customs and Excise, and the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Takis has been retained at various times as counsel or consultant by all EU institutions, namely the Council of Ministers, the Commission, the European Parliament, the European Central Bank and, the Court of Auditors. He was also legal secretary for Advocate General Sir Francis Jacobs at the European Court of Justice.

Takis is one of the most frequently quoted academic authors by Advocates General of the European Court of Justice and, on matters of EU law, by English courts. His academic work has also been cited by Belgian and Irish courts. For a list of cases where Takis’s work has been cited by English and European courts, click here. He speaks regularly in international conferences on EU and financial law and has often appeared in the media in the UK, Europe, and the United States, most recently in relation to the financial crisis.

He is also qualified as a Greek advocate and offers advice in Greek law, especially company, commercial, tax, and administrative law. He has acted as expert witness on Greek law in English courts.

In 2003, Takis was senior legal advisor to the EU Presidency. He chaired the Group set up by the EU Council of Ministers to draft the Accession Treaty by which eight States of Central and Eastern Europe, plus Cyprus and Malta, joined the EU on 1 May 2004. He was also involved in the discussions over the proposed EU Constitution and giving legal advice on the UN plans for reunification of Cyprus.

Takis became a member of Matrix in April 2004. He was previously a tenant of Hailsham Chambers.

Appointments
Chair of European Law, Dickson Poon School of Law, Kings College London (2013)
Sir John Lubbock Professor of Banking Law, Centre for Commercial Law Studies, Queen Mary College, University of London (since 2004)
Nancy A. Patterson Distinguished Scholar and Professor, School of Law, Pennsylvania State University (since 2004)
Independent, non-executive director, EFG Eurobank Ergasias SA (since 2006)
Professor of European Law, College of Europe, Bruges (since 1999)
Legal Advisor on EU Law to the EU Presidency held by Greece (2003)
Référendaire at the European Court of Justice (1992-1995)

Committees
Chair, EU Council Group for the Drafting of the Treaty of Accession to the EU of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia (2003)

Takis accepts instructions under the Bar Council Standard Contractual Terms, details of which can be found here.

Articles and Downloads
Prof. Takis Tridimas – Judicial Citations List
DIRECTORY RECOMMENDATIONS
WHAT THEY SAY:
“A leading writer on EU law, as well as a busy barrister practising in this area. He is active across all areas of EU law, and has particular expertise in human rights cases.”

“Covers a broad range of disputes within EU law and human rights including those relating to sanctions, constitutional law and competition. He acts for individuals and corporations and has experience of being retained on a consultancy basis by all of the EU institutions.”

Chambers & Partners

Called: 2000
CV:
General CV
MAIN AREAS OF PRACTICE:
Arbitration
Commercial Law
Competition and Regulation
Discrimination and Equality
EU Law
Extradition and Mutual Assistance
Human Rights
Immigration, Asylum and Free Movement
Public Law
RELATED ITEMS
Professor Takis Tridimas quoted in BBC article ‘Reality Check: Did EU court ban Islamic headscarf at work?’
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High Court refers case to CJEU for one of the last UK preliminary rulings likely to be made